Heart Disease ALI B ALHAILIY
Cardiovascular disease refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system. The causes of cardiovascular disease are diverse: 1- Atherosclerosis and/or hypertension are the most common. 2- With aging come a number of physiological changes that alter cardiovascular function and lead to subsequently increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Types of Cardiovascular disease • Coronary artery disease ( also known as coronary heart disease and ischaemic heart disease) • Cardiomyopathy- diseases of cardiac muscle • Hypertensive heart disease - diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure • Cardiac dysrhythmias - abnormalities of heart rhythm • Inflammatory heart disease witch include: • Endocarditis – inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium . The structures most commonly involved are the heart valves . • Inflammatory cardiomegaly • Myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium , the muscular part of the heart. • Valvular heart disease .
Risk Factors of Heart disease • Evidence suggests a number of risk factors for heart disease: • Age • gender, • high blood pressure, high serum cholesterol levels • tobacco smoking, • excessive alcohol consumption • sugar consumption • family history, • obesity • lack of physical activity, • diabetes mellitus
Heart Disease Diagnosis 1. The Basics of EKG Whether you spell it EKG or ECG, it's an electrocardiogram. 2. Chest X-Ray Baseline for any abnormalities 3. Stress Test Does your heart respond well to exertion? That's what a stress test looks for. Here's a straightforward description, including how to prepare for a stress test. 4.Echocardiogram There are several variations on the echocardiogram, or "echo," as doctors call it. Learn about these ultrasound-like tests of the heart -- and find out what to expect -- here. 5. Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization -- also called a coronary angiogram -- means running a catheter into your heart. It's done to help doctors see what's going on in there, and whether they need to operate. Here's where to learn about it. 6. CT Heart Scan Computed tomography (CT scan) of the heart can visualize your heart’s anatomy. Calcium-score heart scan and coronary CT angiography are just a few types used to diagnose heart disease. 7. Heart MRI A heart MRI is a great way for doctors to get a look -- from the outside -- at how your heart is working. Read about it here.
Cardiac MRI • Cardiac MRI can help explain results from other tests, such as x rays and computed tomography • Doctors sometimes use cardiac MRI instead of invasive procedures or tests that involve radiation (such as x rays) or contrast media(these dyes may be harmful to people who have kidney problems). • A contrast agent, such as, might be injected into a vein during cardiac MRI. The substance travels to the heart and highlights the heart and blood vessels on the MRI pictures. This contrast agent often is used for people who are allergic to the dyes used in CT scanning.
Cardiac CT Scan • Before Cardiac CT : • Renal profile and allergy • Pregnancy • NPO (Nothing Per Oral) • Radiologist may give patient medicine to slow your heart rate such as (beta blocker). • A slower heart rate will help produce better quality pictures. • The medicine will be given by mouth or injected into a vein.
Cardiac CT Scan • During the exam: • This exam will need to use an iodine-based contrast during the cardiac CT scan. If so, a needle connected to an intravenous (IV) line will be put in a vein in patient.shand or arm. • CT Technologist will clean areas on patient chest and apply sticky patches called electrodes. The patches are attached to an EKG (electrocardiogram) machine. The machine records your heart's electrical activity during the scan.
Cardiac CT Scan • During the exam: • 3- if patient more than 45 years ,calcium scoring phase should be applied (non contrast run for heart ) why? 4- Then contrast enhanced exam will be started over the heart 5- patient will stay in the nursing area for observation
Cardiac ct scan • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jZkrh3kkOqE
Thanks Ali B Alhailiy