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Heart Disease

Heart Disease

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Heart Disease

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  1. Heart Disease

  2. Heart Disease • Arteries that supply blood with fresh oxygen and nutrients are the coronary arteries. • Heart or coronary artery disease is when the coronary arteries become narrowed and/or blocked.

  3. Heart Disease • Is the gradual blockage of the coronary arteries of the heart. Also called Coronary Artery Disease. • When the heart is starved of oxygen, it causes pain in the heart called angina. • If a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, the area of the heart that the artery supplied will die. This is called a Heart Attack.

  4. Heart Disease

  5. Risk Factors for Heart Disease Non-Changeable Risk Factors • Heredity, Genetics, Family History (born with the genes and predisposition) • Aging (plaque build up occurs over time, starting at about age 20; the older you are = higher risk) • Gender (being male = greater risk)

  6. Risk Factors for Heart Disease Changeable Risk Factors • High Blood Pressure/Hypertension • High BP puts a strain on the heart. Coronary arteries could rupture. • High BP is treatable with diet, exercise and medications.

  7. Changeable Risk Factors Continued 2. Smoking • Smoking increases BP (b/c nicotine constricts blood vessels and thickens blood). • Thick blood adds strain on the heart and doesn’t flow through narrow or partly blocked arteries very well. • Oxygen levels are reduced b/c the carbon monoxide in cigarettes displaces the oxygen. • If coronary arteries are already narrowed or partly blocked, heart may not get the amount of oxygen that it needs. • People can quit smoking if they really want to.

  8. Changeable Risk Factors Continued 3. Diet high in salt • Salt thickens the blood • People can choose to lower their salt intake 4. Diet high in Cholesterol • Too much cholesterol will accumulate and stick to the insides of blood vessels, causing them to narrow and become hard and less elastic. • People can modify their diets if they want to

  9. Changeable Risk Factors Continued 5. Obesity • A person who is 30 lbs overweight has double the risk factors and 4 years less to live. • People can try to lose weight 6. High Stress • Causing narrowing of the arteries due to constriction, which in turn increases blood pressure. • Stress also increases heart rate. • Both put an added strain on the heart. • People can find ways to reduce stress in their lives

  10. Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease

  11. Diagnosis of Heart Disease Cardiac Catheterization Involves passing a thin plastic tube through a vein in the leg or arm.

  12. A dye is injected through the tube. The dye travels to the heart and eventually passes through the coronary arteries.

  13. Diagnosis of Heart Disease X-rays and TV monitors are used to view the coronary arteries. Narrowing and blockages can be seen and will help direct the surgeon to the exact nature of the blocked or narrowed coronary arteries.

  14. Catheterization simulation

  15. Diagnosis of Heart Disease As well as the Cardiac Catheterization, blood tests (e.x. cholesterol levels or enzyme levels associated with heart attacks) CAT scans, MRI’s and EKG’s can also help in the diagnosis.

  16. Treatment of Heart Disease Angina • A drug called Nitroglycerine is used to increase blood flow to the coronary arteries. Heart Attacks (and strokes) • Drugs called clot busters (e.x. TPA) can be used to thin the blood and break up blood clots that may be blocking coronary arteries.

  17. Treatment of Heart Disease • If Coronary Arteries are narrowed or blocked by cholesterol deposits (Atherosclerosis), two basic techniques are used to improve blood flow through them: • Angioplasty • Bypass Surgery

  18. Treatment of Heart Disease • Balloon Angioplasty Inserting a catheter with a deflated balloon into a vessel in the groin or wrist and gently pushing it upwards until it reaches the affected coronary artery.

  19. Balloon AngioplastyThe balloon is gently inflated and then deflated several times, squishing the plaques flatter against the artery wall, thus unblocking the artery

  20. Treatment of Heart Disease • Laser Angioplasty A laser melts and vaporizes the fatty deposits to clear the artery.

  21. Treatment of Heart Disease • Coronary Bypass Surgery A vein from the leg is removed and then used to detour around the coronary artery that is blocked. If more than one detour is built during the same surgery it is called a double, triple, quadruple, or quintuple bypass.

  22. Stroke • Affects • blood • vessels • that • supply • blood • to the • brain.

  23. Strokes and Heart Attacks basically have the same cause…

  24. Warning Signs of a Stroke – learn them –death due to strokes is preventable… • - NEVER IGNORE THEM - 6 minutes

  25. Symptoms of Heart Attack 6 minutes