Bell Ringer # 1 1. Which process below uses carbon dioxide and the sun’s radiant energy to produce chemical energy? • A Evaporation • B Photosynthesis • C Respiration • D Decomposition
2. Some students grew plants of the same species in soils with different pH values. Their data are shown in the table above. The students hypothesized that these plants grow best in soil with a pH of 6.4 to 6.8. According to the data, which of the following best supports the hypothesis? • A Plants in Groups 5 and 6 grew the most. • B Plants in Groups 1 and 2 grew the most. • C Plants in Groups 3, 4, and 5 grew the most. • D Plants in Groups 2, 3, and 4 grew the most.
Plant Characteristics • Multicellular • Autotrophic • Absorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis • Cell walls made of cellulose • Sessile
Divisions Plants *Spores
CLADOGRAM Which are more closely related? Ferns and Liverworts or Ferns and Gymnosperms?
Plants have three tissues • Dermal Tissue: • Epidermis: • Thick and waxy/very tough • Protects the outside of the plant to protect from water loss • Contains the stomata • Ground Tissue: • This is the edible part of the plant • Storage of sugar • Supports the plant • Chloroplasts found here • Vascular Tissue: NOT FOUND IN MOSSES, LIVERWORTS OR HORNWORTS • Xylem: Transport water • Phloem: Transports food
1. Which of the following events indicates that a plant’s reproductive system has successfully carried out its function? • A. a seed forms • B. a flower opens • C. a root system expands • D. A sprout grows to maturity
Nonvascular Plants - Bryophytes • Include mosses, Liverworts, and hornworts • Require moist environment/Short • Lack vascular tissues • Reproduce with spores Sporangia Hornwort Moss Liverwort
1. Even a tiny amount of moisture can support the life of mosses, which are nonvascular plants. Why are mosses good pioneer species? A. They grow very slowly. B. They can survive in wet areas. C. They can create a layer of soil on bare rock over time. D. They can survive in areas that receive low levels of sunlight. Flash Back: Primary succession Lichens & Mosses.
Vascular Plants • Have vascular tissues = tubes to carry water and food • Seedless plants: Ferns, mosses, etc • Seeded plants: Gymnosperm (naked seeds) and Angiosperm (seed in ovary) • Have vascular tissues = tubes to carry water and food
Water Nutrients Phloem: carries sugar and organic nutrients throughout the plant. FOOD Xylem: Its basic function is to transport water, through the plant. Cambium
Cambium -a layer of delicate meristematic tissue between the inner bark or phloem and the wood or xylem. Meristem , region of cells capable of division and growth in plants
Ferns- Pteridophytes (seedless) - Have Vascular tissue - Reproduce with spores, not seeds
Seed Plants Sperm • A seed is an embryo packaged with food within a protective coat • Pollen is a package of sperm that can be carried from plant to plant by wind, water, animals, etc. • The flowers contain ovules (eggs) and later develop into a fruit containing the seeds. Pollen
Seeds, Fruits and Cones • Fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds. Gymnosperms Angiosperms
Gymnosperms • Means “naked seed” • Seeds lack hard covering and are in cones • Includes conifers, pines, ginkgos, cycads, etc. Female Cone Male Cone
Gymnosperms Pines Cycads Giant Sequoia Ginkgo
Angiosperms • “Flowering Plants” • Reproduce with seeds in fruits • Most diverse plant group • Extremely useful to humans, supply most of our food and medicine
Angiosperms: Major Structures Need to know: • Roots • Stems • Leaves • Flowers
Angiosperms: Monocots • Grasses, palms, grains, etc. • Single cotlydon (seed leaf) • Flower parts in multiples of 3 • Leaf veins parallel • Vascular bundles scattered in stem • Lack tap root
Angiosperms: Dicots • Most familiar plants • Two cotlydons (seed leaves) • Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 • Leaf veins branching • Vascular bundles in stem in rings • Roots develop from central “tap” root