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1500-1660

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1500-1660

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  1. 1500-1660

  2. The Renaissance • Intellectual movement • Rebirth of scholarship based on classical learning and philosophy • Spread from Italy

  3. Rebirth of human spirit: the Individual! • Realization of human potential for development • Lead to discoveries in: • literature • science • religion • philosophy • invention • geography

  4. The Rise of the Renaissance in England 1500-1558

  5. Henry VII • 1485--End of the Wars of the Roses • Henry Tudor became Henry VII • Married Elizabeth of York • United the two warring factions • Brought peace and tranquility • Began to replenish the treasury

  6. Henry the VIII • 2nd son (Arthur dies young) • Wasted treasury • Needed Cash • Needed a Male Heir • Broke with the Catholic Church

  7. Act of Supremacy • 1534 • King declared Head of Church of England • Seized Catholic Church’s properties • Steady movement of population to cities

  8. Henry’s Wives Divorced, beheaded, died; Divorced, beheaded, survived Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr

  9. Edward the VI • 1547 Henry VIII Dies • Edward VI ascends throne • 10 years old/Pawn of powerful men • weak and sickly physical constitution • 1549--Book of Common Prayers published • Died in 1553 of consumption or over-medication

  10. Mary I • Daughter of Catherine of Aragon • Devoted Catholic • Known as Bloody Mary • 300 Protestant victims • Died childless

  11. The Height of the 1558-1603

  12. Elizabeth I • 1558--ascends throne at 25 • Protestant • Never married • 45 years as Queen – made royal history! • Established 100 free grammar schools • great patron of the arts – a poetess herself • Middle class educated and gained power • Defeated the Spanish Armada; England becoming a super power.

  13. The Court of Elizabeth • Educated courtiers • Music and dancing • Masques (flamboyant musical dramas) • Entertainment included: public hangings, witch burnings, bearbaitings, elevated discussions, and Italian poetry • Golden Age of English drama (Marlow, Jonson, and Shakespeare) • Civic and Religious leaders viewed theatre as evil

  14. Evolution of Elizabethan Theatre At first… • No elaborate sets • countryside -- on makeshift platforms • London -- performed in taverns and inns • considered traveling vagabonds • content of plays changes from strictly religious to more secular plots and settings. • Church withdrew its support

  15. Changes in Theatre • Popularity lead to purpose built playhouses • Spectators who could afford it sat in balconies • “Groundlings” stood on ground around stage (called “Stinkards” in summer time…) • No lighting – daytime performances (2pm) • large platform became the stage. • Professional acting companies got support of Queen Elizabeth.

  16. Theatres • located outside city limits – reduce plague • first permanent theatres since the Romans • 1576 First theater – The Theatre • Later torn down and renamed “The Globe” • “All the world’s a stage” – As You Like It • Building also used for other entertainment like bull or bear baiting

  17. Theatre Layout • Round/Octagonal open air structure • Platform juts out into open yard • Back wall – 2 doors for entrances/exits • Upper stage/balcony • 2 pillars holding up “heavens” painted with Zodiac • Audience seated in galleries or standing on the ground

  18. Indoor Theatres • During winter • In palaces of Queen Elizabeth or King James • Large halls lit by candlelight • Many of these plays set at night • Macbeth one of these? (spooky…)

  19. The Audience • Nobles (sometimes on stage) • Groundlings might throw garbage and heckle performers if displeased • No restrooms for up to 3000 spectators • No intermissions • Smells and swells: urine, beer, ginger, garlic, tobacco, sweat • vendors, prostitutes, general rowdiness • Plot of the play usually known (History&Legend) • Only one entrance/exit (Wait your turn!)

  20. Actors • No female actresses! Too uncouth a job! • prepubescent boys play female parts • little actual sex or romance in plays– just brief kisses • strong female characters • women disguised as men -- a plot device • still British tradition – Monty Python • troupes = 15 men • members versatile. Required to be: • acrobats • singers • dancers • swordsmen • know multiple parts

  21. Costumes • extravagant, spangled affairs • gold thread • lace • silk • velvet • cast-offs of aristocratic patrons • actors wore make-up (generally considered an abomination by church…) • anachronism – “out of time” Roman soldiers in Julius Caesar wore Renaissance fashions.

  22. Staging • No outside curtains used between scenes • very little scenery • Actors’ lines helped audience understand setting. “Here I stand in a forest..” • 2 Doors symbolized different places • Synechdoche – part stand for whole • 3 soldiers stand for an army • throne stands for castle of the king • Prologues given as introductory speed • summary of story • points out the theme • spoken by narrator or chorus

  23. Language • Combined a variety of action with variety of language • Pun – a play on words based on two words sounding alike but having different meanings. • Play written in iambic pentameter – natural speech rhythms • Blank verse (verse, but no rhyme) • Often makes use of rhyme • Upper class characters – poetry • Lower class characters - prose • Proximity of Actors and Audience: • aside –character speaks to audience • soliloquy –character speaks thoughts aloud to self

  24. Special Effects • Winch system to raise and lower things • Thunder – fire cannon or roll cannonball down wooden trough • Lighting – gun powder • Trap doors – under stage, called Hell

  25. Theatrical Taste • Great love of blood, guts, gore, supernatural • lots of violence • animal bladders filled with blood under costumes • battered pig’s head of chopped off human head • Lots of ghosts, witches, spirits – all believed in at that time… • Bawdy humor – plays very sexual • puns • double entendres

  26. Scripts • One copy of script complete – held by bookholder (stage manager) • Actors got pieces of paper with just their lines and cue words on them • Not a lot of stage directions – indicated by lines themselves • “Here comes Macbeth” spoken by a character on stage meant Macbeth was to enter

  27. Shakespeare • Born in Stratford upon Avon • Father a merchant (Glove maker) • Married Anne Hathaway – older woman (by 6 years) • Anne already pregnant when married • Has a few kids • Heads out to London to become a STAR!

  28. Shakespeare in London • Became an actor • criticized for being a stage hog • started writing (still some acting) • plays popular with the public, but not the critics • Breaks the rules of “good” writing: • murders on stage • mixed comedy with tragedy • did away with decorum

  29. Shakespeare’s Company • Prominent members of Shakespeare’s acting company: • Richard Burbage • Will Kemp • Cuthbert Burbage • John Hemmings • Under patronage of Queen Elizabeth -- 1594 • Lord Chamberlain’s Men • Under patronage of King James -- 1603 • King’s Men

  30. The First Folio The First Folio • A folio is: • A book or manuscript consisting of pages folded in the middle • Approximately 14x18 • Shakespeare’s First Folio is: • The first compilation of Shakespeare’s work • It consisted of 36 of his plays – 18 of which it was the first time they were published • Published in 1623 – 7 years after his death. • Only 750 copies printed and it sold out!

  31. The Decline of the 1603-1649

  32. James I • First Stuart King • Believed he ruled by divine authority • Commissioned King James version of Bible • Opposed Puritanism • Growing religious and political unrest • Catholics conceived idea to blow up Parliament--1605-Gunpowder Plot • Guy Fawkes Day--November 5

  33. Jimmy and Willy • Macbeth written for King James • VI of Scotland • I of England • House of Stuart descended from royalty in the play (Banquo and son Fleance) • King obsessed with witchcraft and the occult • actually wrote a book about it called Demonology • One theme of Macbeth is “revenge and retribution” • Shakespeare spices the plot to James’ satisfaction with the 3 weird sisters (witches) and a few ghosts

  34. Women’s Rights • Women were second class citizens • No right to an education • Pawns used in marriage agreements • A father’s word was final in all aspects of a women’s life • If she did not marry, she had no future • Shakespeare challenges these views in Taming of the Shrew • A shrew is a strong willed, outspoken, uncontrollable woman • Shakespeare makes the audience recognize the unjust way women are treated • The major question of the play is if Kate is tamed.

  35. Charles I • Son of James I • Dismissed Parliament • 1642--Civil War broke out • Cavaliers--royal supporters • Roundheads or Puritans--Parliamentary supporters • Beheaded in 1649 • Oliver Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector • Playhouses closed in 1649