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Unit 1 Digital Content

Unit 1 Digital Content

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Unit 1 Digital Content

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  1. Unit 1Digital Content ENHANCED EDITION

  2. Unit Contents • Section A: Digital Basics • Section B: Digital Sound • Section C: Bitmap Graphics • Section D: Vector Graphics • Section E: Digital Video Unit 1: Digital Content

  3. Section A: Digital Basics • Data Representation Basics • Representing Numbers • Representing Text • Bits and Bytes • Compression Unit 1: Digital Content

  4. Data Representation Basics • Data refers to the symbols that represent people, events, things, and ideas. Data can be a name, a number, the colors in a photograph, or the notes in a musical composition • Data Representation refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted • Devices such as smartphones, iPods, and computers store data in digital formats that can be handled by electronic circuitry Unit 1: Digital Content

  5. Data Representation Basics • Digitization is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices • The digital revolution has evolved through four phases, beginning with big, expensive, standalone computers, and progressing to today’s digital world in which small, inexpensive digital devices are everywhere Unit 1: Digital Content

  6. Data Representation Basics • The 0s and 1s used to represent digital data are referred to as binary digits – from this term we get the word bit which stands for binary digit • A bit is a 0 or 1 used in the digital representation of data • A digital file, usually referred to simply as a file, is a named collection of data that exits on a storage medium, such as a hard disk, CD, DVD, or flash drive Unit 1: Digital Content

  7. Data Representation Basics Unit 1: Digital Content

  8. Representing Numbers • Numeric data consists of numbers that can be used in arithmetic operations • Digital devices represent numeric data using the binary number system, also called base 2 • The binary number system only has two digits: 0 and 1 • No numeral like 2 exists in the system, so the number “two” is represented in binary as 10 (pronounced “one zero”) Unit 1: Digital Content

  9. Representing Numbers Unit 1: Digital Content

  10. Representing Text • Character data is composed of letters, symbols, and numerals that are not used in calculations • Examples of character data include your name, address, and hair color • Character data is commonly referred to as “text” Unit 1: Digital Content

  11. Representing Text • Digital devices employ several types of codes to represent character data, including ASCII, Unicode and their variants • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange, pronounced “ASK ee”) requires seven bits for each character • The ASCII code for an uppercase A is 1000001 Unit 1: Digital Content

  12. Representing Text • Extended ASCII is a superset of ASCII that uses eight bits for each character • For example, Extended ASCII represents the uppercase letter A as 01000001 • Using eight bits allows Extended ASCII to provide codes for 256 characters Unit 1: Digital Content

  13. Representing Text • Unicode (pronounced “YOU ni code”) uses sixteen bits and provides codes or 65,000 characters • This is a bonus for representing the alphabets of multiple languages Unit 1: Digital Content

  14. Representing Text Unit 1: Digital Content

  15. Representing Text • ASCII codes are used for numerals, such as Social Security numbers and phone numbers • Plain, unformatted text is sometimes called ASCII text and is stored in a so-called “text file” with a name ending in .txt • On Apple devices these files are labeled “Plain Text”; in Windows, these files are labeled “Text Document” Unit 1: Digital Content

  16. Representing Text • ASCII text files contain no formatting • To create documents with styles and formats, formatting codes have to be embedded in the text Unit 1: Digital Content

  17. Representing Text • Microsoft Word produces formatted text and creates documents in DOCX format • iWork Pages produces documents in PAGES format • Adobe Acrobat produces documents in PDF format • HTML markup language used for Web pages produces documents in HTML format Unit 1: Digital Content

  18. Representing Text Unit 1: Digital Content

  19. Bits and Bytes • All of the data stored and transmitted by digital devices is encoded as bits • Terminology related to bits and bytes is extensively used to describe storage capacity and network access speed • The word bit, an abbreviation for binary digit, can be further abbreviated as a lowercase b • A group of eight bits is called a byte and is usually abbreviated as an uppercase B Unit 1: Digital Content

  20. Bits and Bytes • When reading about digital devices, you’ll frequently encounter references such as 50 kilobits per second, 1.44 megabytes, 2.8 gigahertz, and 2 terabytes. • Kilo, mega, giga, tera, and similar terms are used to quantify digital data Unit 1: Digital Content

  21. Bits and Bytes Unit 1: Digital Content

  22. Bits and Bytes • Use bits for data rates, such as Internet connection speeds, and movie download speeds • Use bytes for file sizes and storage capacities Unit 1: Digital Content

  23. Compression • To reduce file size and transmission times, digital data can be compressed • Data compression refers to any technique that recodes the data in a file so that it contains fewer bits • Compression is commonly referred to as “zipping” Unit 1: Digital Content

  24. Compression • Compression techniques have two categories: lossless and lossy • Lossless compression provides a way to compress data and reconstitute it into its original state; uncompressed data stays exactly the same as the original data • Lossy compression throws away some of the original data during the compression process; uncompressed data is not exactly the same as the original Unit 1: Digital Content

  25. Compression • Software for compressing data is sometimes referred to as a compression utility or a zip tool • On laptops and desktop computers, the compression utility is accessed from the same screen used to manage files Unit 1: Digital Content

  26. Compression • The process of reconstituting files is called extracting or unzipping • Compressed files may end with a .zip, .gz, .pkg, or.tar.gz Unit 1: Digital Content

  27. Section B: Digital Sound • Digital Audio Basics • Digital Audio File Formats • MIDI • Digitized Speech Unit 1: Digital Content

  28. Digital Audio Basics • Digital audio is music, speech, and other sounds represented in binary format for use in digital devices • Most digital devices have a built-in microphone and audio software, so recording external sounds is easy • To digitally record sound samples of a sound wave are collected at periodic intervals and stored as numeric data in an audio file • Sound waves are sampled many times per second by an analog-to-digital converter • A digital-to-analog converter transforms the digital bits into analog sound waves Unit 1: Digital Content

  29. Digital Audio Basics Unit 1: Digital Content

  30. Digital Audio Basics • Sampling rate refers to the number of times per second that a sound is measured during the recording process • Higher sampling rates increase the quality of a sound recording but require more storage space Unit 1: Digital Content

  31. Digital Audio File Formats • A digital file can be identified by its type or its file extension, such as Thriller.mp3 (an audio file) • The most popular digital audio formats are: AAC, MP3, Ogg, Vorbis, WAV, and WMA Unit 1: Digital Content

  32. Digital Audio File Formats • To play a digital audio file, you must use some type of audio software, such as: • Audio Software: General-purpose software and apps used for recording, playing, and modifying audio files, such as iTunes • Audio Players: Small standalone software application or mobile app that offers tools for listening to digital audio and managing playlists, typically included with your computer’s OS (operating system) • Audio Plugins: Software that works in conjunction with your computer’s browser to manage and play audio from a Web page Unit 1: Digital Content

  33. Digital Audio File Formats Unit 1: Digital Content

  34. Digital Audio File Formats • Ripping is a slang term that refers to the process of importing tracks from a CD or DVD to your computer’s hard disk • The technical term for ripping music tracks is digital audio extraction Unit 1: Digital Content

  35. MIDI • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) specifies a standard way to store music data for synthesizers, electronic MIDI instruments, and computers • MIDI messages are instructions that specify the pitch of a note, the point at which the note begins, the volume of the note, etc. • An MIDI message may look like this: Unit 1: Digital Content

  36. MIDI • Music composition software with MIDI support makes it easy to place notes on a screen-based music staff then play back the composition on a MIDI keyboard or through the speakers of a digital device Unit 1: Digital Content

  37. Digitized Speech • Speech synthesis is the process by which machines produce sound that resembles spoken words • Speech recognition (or voice recognition) refers to the ability of a machine to understand spoken words Unit 1: Digital Content

  38. Digitized Speech • Speech recognition software analyzes the sounds of your voice and converts each word into groups of phonemes (basic sound units) • The software then compares the groups to the words in a digital dictionary to find a match • When a match is found, the software can display the word on the screen or use it to carry out a command Unit 1: Digital Content

  39. Digitized Speech Unit 1: Digital Content

  40. Section C: Bitmap Graphics • Bitmap Basics • Bitmap Data Representation • Bitmap Resolution • Image Compression • Modifying Bitmap Images Unit 1: Digital Content

  41. Bitmap Basics • As digital devices gained the ability to display images, two types of computer graphics evolved: bitmap & vector • A bitmap graphic is composed of a grid of tiny rectangular cells • Each cell is a picture element, commonly called a pixel • Each pixel is assigned a color, which is stored as a binary number Unit 1: Digital Content

  42. Bitmap Basics Unit 1: Digital Content

  43. Bitmap Basics • You can create a bitmap graphic from scratch using the tools provided by graphics software – specifically a category of graphics software referred to as paint software • Examples of paint software are, Adobe photoshop, iPhoto, and Microsoft Paint Unit 1: Digital Content

  44. Bitmap Basics • You can use a scanner to convert a printed image into a bitmap graphic • A scanner divides an image into a fine grid of cells and assigns a digital value for the color of each cell • As a scan progresses the values are transferred to a digital device and stored as a bitmap graphics file Unit 1: Digital Content

  45. Bitmap Basics • In a digital camera, the lens focuses light from the image onto a small image sensor called a CCD (charge-coupled device) • A CCD contains a grid of tiny light sensitive diodes called photosites • Photosites correspond to pixels; the more pixels used to capture an image, the higher its resolution • Cameras, scanners, and graphics software offer a choice of bitmap formats, such as BMP, RAW, TIFF, JPEG, GIF, and PNG Unit 1: Digital Content

  46. Bitmap Data Representation • Color and resolution are key elements in bitmap data representation • Today’s color display devices represent color using the RGB color model Unit 1: Digital Content

  47. Bitmap Data Representation • Color values can be specified in decimal (base 10), hexadecimal (base 16), or binary (base 2) • With eight bits used to represent each color value, one pixel requires 24 bits • The number of colors available in a graphic is referred to as color depth Unit 1: Digital Content

  48. Bitmap Resolution • The dimensions of the grid that forms a bitmap graphic are referred to as image resolution • High-resolution graphics contain more data than low-resolution graphics; more data makes it possible to display and print high-quality images that are sharper and clearer Unit 1: Digital Content

  49. Bitmap Resolution • Graphics software, such as Adobe Photoshop, can help you gauge how large an image can be printed before the quality begins deteriorate Unit 1: Digital Content

  50. Image Compression • Image compression refers to any technique that recodes the data in an image file so that it contains fewer bits • Run-length encoding (RLE) is a type of lossless compression that replaces a series of similarly colored pixels with a binary code that indicates the number of pixels and their colors Unit 1: Digital Content