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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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  1. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

  2. Important Scientists • Greeks fire, earth, wind, water • Dalton father of atom; sphere • Thomson cathode ray tube; charged particles • Millikan mass of electron; oil drop experiment • Rutherford nucleus; gold foil experiment • Chadwick missing mass; neutron

  3. The atom symbol/chargemass (kg) mass (amu) location proton p+ 9.11 X 10-31 kg 1 amu nucleus neutron n0 1.67 X 10-27 kg 1 amu electron e- 1.67 X 10-27 kg 0 energy levels

  4. Need to know Atomic number = # protons Mass number = # protons + # neutrons Atomic mass or weight = weighted average of all isotopes of an element Isotope = atom of an element with same atomic number but different mass number mass # 6529Cu copper-65 atomic #

  5. Chemical formulasDepend on type of bond Ionic bonds • Write symbols • Check charges • Crisscross charges if necessary • Parentheses around polyatomic ions ex. Magnesium phosphate Mg2+ PO43- Mg3(PO4)2

  6. Covalent bonds Prefixes tell how many of each element No charges involved mono- 1 di- 2 ex. trioxygen tetrafluoride tri- 3 O3F4 tetra- 4 penta- 5 hexa- 6 phosphorus pentachloride hepta- 7 PCl5 octa- 8 nona- 9 deca- 10

  7. Ions Formed when atoms lose or gain electrons Lose or gain to follow octet rule (filled valence level) Lose form cation Mg 12 p+ Mg2+12 p+ positive charge 12 e- 10 e- Gain form anion S 16 p+ S2- 16 p+ negative charge16 e- 18 e- (atom) (ion) (atom) (ion)

  8. GroupsVertical columns special names valence e- ion Group IA alkali metals 1 e- Na+ IIA alkaline earth metals 2e- Mg2+ IIIA aluminum group 3 e- Al3+ VA nitrogen group 5e- N3- VIA oxygen or chalcogen 6e- O2- VIIA halogens 7e- F- VIIIA noble or inert gases 8e- Ne

  9. Periods Horizontal rows Tell how many energy levels contain electrons ex. period 3 has electrons in 3 energy levels period 6 has electrons in 6 energy levels

  10. Parts of periodic table Metals/nonmetals Metals to left of stair step line Nonmetals to right of stair step line [Metalloids touch either side of stair step line] representative elements group ‘A’ elements transition elements group ‘B’ elements inner transition elements bottom 2 rows

  11. Naming ionic compounds • name cation + name anion • -ide ending if anion is single element • Roman numerals for transition elements if needed. ex. CaCO3 calcium carbonate FeCl3 iron (III) chloride

  12. Naming covalent compounds • name first element + name second element • -ide ending on last element only • prefixes to tell how many of each ex. CCl4 carbon tetrachloride (mono- is never used on the first element) CO carbon monoxide

  13. Naming Acids no oxygen hydro- + -ic -ate -ic to root name -ite -ous to root name ex. Acid anion name HCl chloride hydrochloric acid HClO4 perchlorate perchloric acid HClO3 chlorate chloric acid HClO2 chlorite chlorous acid HClO hypochlorite hypochlorous acid