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  2. 2.1 THE ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER Material world made up of tiny indivisible particles they called atomos, meaning “indivisible or uncuttable.” Dalton’s Atomic Theory Dalton’s atomic theory was based on the four postulates 1. Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. An atom of the element nitrogen An atom of the element oxygen Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  3. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 3. Atoms of one element cannot be changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions; atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  4. 4. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms. Dalton’s theory explains several laws of chemical combination that were known during his time Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  5. Law of conservation of mass The total mass of materials present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass present before the reaction. based on postulate 3 Law of constant composition In a given compound, the relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant. based on postulate 4 Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  6. A good theory explains known facts and predicts new ones Dalton used his theory to deduce the law of multiple proportions: If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compound, the masses of B that can combine with a given mass of A are in the ratio of small whole numbers. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  7. considering water and hydrogen peroxide 8.0 g Oxygen water 1.0 g Hydrogen 16.0 g Oxygen hydrogen peroxide 1.0 g Hydrogen Thus, the ratio of the mass of oxygen per gram of hydrogen in the two compounds is 2:1. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  8. Using Dalton’s atomic theory, we conclude that hydrogen peroxide contains twice as many atoms of oxygen per hydrogen atom as does water. 2.2 THE DISCOVERY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE Today we know that the atom is composed of subatomic particles. fact: Particles with the same charge repel one another, whereas particles with unlike charges attract one another. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  9. Cathode Rays and Electrons • Electrons move from the cathode (negative electrode) to the anode (positive electrode). • The tube contains a glass screen (set diagonally to the electron beam) that fluoresces, showing the path of the cathode rays. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  10. The rays are deflected by a magnet. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  11. J. J. Thomson observed several many properties of the cathod rays. • They are the same regardless of the identity of the cathode material • Cathode rays are streams of negatively charged particles ´electrons´ Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  12. Thomson constructed a cathode-ray tube 1.76×108 C/g of electron From these measurements Charge-to-mass ratio Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  13. R. Millikans oil-drop experiment The value of Charge = 1.602×108 C Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  14. The value of Charge of electron = 1.602×108 C Thomsons Charge-to-mass ratio =1.76×108 C/g of electron Radioactivity spontaneous emission of radiation. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  15. Rutherford three types of radiation: alpha (), beta (), and gamma (). The paths of () and () radiation are bent by an electric field, although in opposite directions; () radiation is unaffected by the field Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  16. Gamma radiation is high-energy radiation similar to X-rays; it does not consist of particles and carries no charge. The Nuclear Model of the Atom Rutherford He proposed that the atom consisted of a uniform positive sphere of matter in which the electrons were embedded like raisins in a pudding or seeds in a watermelon Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  17. Rutherford’s -scattering experiment. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  18. Rutherford explained the results by postulating the nuclear model of the atom, • most of the mass of each gold atom and all of its positive charge reside in a very small, extremely dense region that he called the nucleus. • most of the volume of an atom is empty space in which electrons move around the nucleus. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  19. Subsequent experiments led to the discovery of positive particles (protons) and neutral particles (neutrons) in the nucleus. Protons were discovered in 1919 by Rutherford and neutrons in 1932 by British scientist James Chadwick (1891–1972). Thus, the atom is composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  20. 2.3 THE MODERN VIEW OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE The charge of an electron is 1.602 × 1019 . That of a proton is equal in magnitude, +1.602 × 10-19 C. The quantity 1.602 × 1019 C is called the electronic charge Every atom has an equal number of electrons and protons, so atoms have no net electrical charge. Atoms have extremely small masses. The mass of the heaviest known atom, is approximately 4 × 1022 g we use the atomic mass unit (amu) 1 amu = 1.66054 × 1024 g Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  21. Because it takes 1836 electrons to equal the mass of one proton or one neutron, the nucleus contains most of the mass of an atom. Most atoms have diameters between 1 × 1010 m to 5 × 1010m 1 Å = 1  1010 m The diameter of a chlorine atom, for example, is 200 pm, or 0.20 Å Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  22. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  23. Atomic Numbers, Mass Numbers, and Isotopes The atoms of each element have a characteristic number of protons. the number of protons in an atom of any particular element is called that element’s atomic number the mass number, is the number of protons plus neutrons in the atom Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  24. Atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers (that is, same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons) are called isotopes of one another. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  25. a) The superscript 197 is the mass number (protons + neutrons) gold has atomic number 79 197Au has 79 protons, 79 electrons, and 197 - 79 = 118 neutrons b) The atomic number of strontium (listed on inside front cover) is 38. Thus, all atoms of this element have 38 protons and 38 electrons. The strontium-90 isotope has 90 - 38 = 52 neutrons Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  26. (a) Magnesium has atomic number 12, so all atoms of magnesium contain 12 protons and 12 electrons. The numbers of neutrons in an atom of each isotope are therefore 12, 13, and 14, respectively Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  27. 2.4 ATOMIC WEIGHTS The Atomic Mass Scale The atomic mass unit is presently defined by assigning a mass of exactly 12 amu to an atom of the 12C isotope of carbon. In these units, an 1H atom has a mass of 1.0078 amu and an 16O atom has a mass of 15.9949 amu. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  28. Atomic Weight Most elements occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes. We can determine the average atomic mass of an element, usually called the element’s atomic weight, by using the masses of its isotopes and their relative abundances: Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  29. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  30. 2.5 THE PERIODIC TABLE patterns in chemical behavior Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  31. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  32. 2.6 MOLECULES AND MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Only the noble-gas elements are normally found in nature as isolated atoms. Most matter is composed of molecules or ions. Molecules and Chemical Formulas Several elements are found in nature in molecular form—two or more of the same type of atom bound together. O2 chemical formula A molecule made up of two atoms is called a diatomic molecule. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  33. molecular compounds: Compounds composed of molecules contain more than one type of atom. Most molecular substances we will encounter contain only nonmetals. Molecular and Empirical Formulas Molecular Formulas Chemical formulas that indicate the actual numbers of atoms in a molecule. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  34. Empirical Formulas Chemical formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type in a molecule. • The subscripts in an empirical formula are always the smallest possible whole-number ratios. • For many substances, the molecular formula and the empirical formula are identical, as in the case of water, H2O. • Whenever we know the molecular formula of a compound, we can determine its empirical formula. The converse is not true, however. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  35. empirical formula for glucose is CH2O. the empirical formula for nitrous oxide is the same as its molecular formula, N2O. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  36. Picturing Molecules A structural formula shows which atoms are attached to which Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  37. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  38. 2.7 IONS AND IONIC COMPOUNDS If electrons are removed from or added to an atom, a charged particle called an ion is formed. An ion with a positive charge is a cation (pronounced CAT-ion); a negatively charged ion is an anion (AN-ion). consider the sodium atom, which has 11 protons and 11 electrons. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  39. Chlorine, with 17 protons and 17 electrons • In general, metal atoms tend to lose electrons to form cations and nonmetal atoms tend togain electrons to form anions. • Thus, ionic compounds tend to be composed of metals bonded with nonmetals, as in NaCl. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  40. a)48Ti3+ b) 32S2- Predicting Ionic Charges Many atoms gain or lose electrons to end up with the same number of electrons as the noble gas closest to them in the periodic table. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  41. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  42. Predictable charges of some common ions. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  43. Ionic Compounds A compound made up of cations and anions. The ions in ionic compounds are arranged in three-dimensional structures, as for NaCl. Because there is no discrete “molecule” of NaCl, we are able to write only an empirical formula for this substance. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  44. Ionic compounds are generally combinations of metals and nonmetals, as in NaCl. Molecular compounds are generally composed of nonmetals only, as in H2O. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  45. We can write the empirical formula for an ionic compound if we know the charges of the ions. Chemical compounds are always electrically neutral. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

  46. 2.8 NAMING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS The system used in naming substances is called chemical nomenclature, from the Latin words nomen (name) and calare (to call). water (H2O) and ammonia (NH3), do have traditional names (called common names). Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds ionic compounds usually consist of metal ions combined with nonmetal ions. The metals form the cations, and the nonmetals form the anions. Dr. Said M. El-Kurdi

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