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Chapter 24

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Chapter 24

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  1. Chapter 24 The Transformation of Europe - War, Monarchies and Revolution

  2. The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1645) • Holy Roman emperor attempts to force Bohemians to return to Roman Catholic Church • All of Europe becomes involved in conflict • Principal battleground: Germany • Political, economic issues involved • Approximately one-third of German population destroyed

  3. Causes of the Thirty Years War • Sprang out of complicated religious and political grievances • Lutherans and Catholics had not fought since the peace of Augsburg (1555) • Spread of Calvinism new source of friction – Calvinists excluded from Peace of Augsburg • 1608 Calvinists form Protestant Union • 1609 Catholic’s form Catholic League • Both illegal military alliances, afraid of each other but determined to keep the rival religion from making further gains

  4. The Bohemian Phase • Ferdinand of Styria gets elected king of Bohemia in 1617 • Tries to re-Catholicize the country • 1618 civil war breaks out between Habsburgs and Bohemian Estates • Estates depose Ferdinand elect Frederick V of the Palatinate • Catholic League and Protestant Union get involved • Ferdinand wins Frederick flees • Within 10 years Protestantism stamped out with help of Jesuits

  5. Danish, Swedish & French Intervention • Protestants could not unite • 1625 Protestant king of Denmark intervened partly to save cause of co-religious partly to gain territory in northern Germany • War slowly becomes less a war of religion and more a struggle for the hegemony of Europe • 1629 Danish withdraw • 1631 Sweden intervenes • 1634 Swedes ultimately defeated • War becomes France, Sweden & Dutch against Spain and Habsburgs

  6. Peace of Westphalia (1643-1648) • Europe’s first great peace at Congress of Westphalia • Importance of the sovereign state • Cuius region, eius religio reconfirmed • Social results of the war – • Armies robbed, raped and murdered their way back and forth across Germany • Lack of any modern supply system meant that they had to live off the land • Entire generation grew up accepting violence and brutality as normal • Fragmentation of the Empire into practically independent states hampered economic recovery

  7. Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648.

  8. The Consolidation of Sovereign States • Emperor Charles V (r. 1519-1556) attempts to revive Holy Roman Empire as strong center of Europe • Through marriage, political alliances • Ultimately fails • Protestant Reformation provides cover for local princes to assert greater independence • Foreign opposition from France, Ottoman Empire • Unlike China, India, Ottoman Empire, Europe does not develop as single empire, rather individual states • Charles V abdicates to monastery in Spain

  9. Sixteenth-century Europe

  10. The New Monarchs • Italy well-developed as economic power through trade, manufacturing, finance • Yet England, France, and Spain surge ahead in 16th century, innovative new tax revenues • England: Henry VIII • Fines and fees for royal services; confiscated monastic holdings • France: Louis XI, Francis I • New taxes on sales, salt trade

  11. The Spanish Inquisition • Founded by Fernando and Isabel in 1478 • Original task: search for secret Christian practitioners of Judaism or Islam, later search for Protestants • Spread to Spanish holdings outside Iberian peninsula in western hemisphere • Imprisonment, executions • Intimidated nobles who might have considered Protestantism • Archbishop of Toledo imprisoned 1559-1576

  12. Constitutional States • England and Netherlands develop institutions of popular representation • England: constitutional monarchy • Netherlands: republic • English Civil War, 1642-1649 • Begins with opposition to royal taxes • Religious elements: Anglican church favors complex ritual, complex church hierarchy, opposed by Calvinist Puritans • King Charles I and parliamentary armies clash • King loses, is beheaded in 1649

  13. The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) • Puritans take over, becomes a dictatorship • Monarchy restored in 1660, fighting resumes • Resolution with bloodless coup called Glorious Revolution • King James II deposed, daughter Mary and husband William of Orange take throne • Shared governance between crown and parliament

  14. Results of the Glorious Revolution • Establishment of parliamentary sovereignty over the crown • “Bill of Rights” • Denied the king’s right to suspend acts of Parliament or interfere with the ordinary course of justice • Furnished a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the generation after 1688 • Religious toleration and freedom from arbitrary arrest were established by law • Censorship of the press was quietly dropped • The king had to summon Parliament every year because he could not pay or control his armed forces without parliamentary consent • The struggle for control was no longer between king and parliament but between factions (Whigs & Tories)

  15. Absolute Monarchies • Theory of Divine Right of Kings • French absolutism designed by Cardinal Richelieu (under King Louis XIII, 1624-1642) • Destroyed castles of nobles, crushed aristocratic conspiracies • Built bureaucracy to bolster royal power base • Ruthlessly attacked Calvinists

  16. Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” 1643-1715) • L’état, c’est moi: “I am the State.” • Magnificent palace at Versailles, 1670s, becomes his court • Largest building in Europe • 1,400 fountains • 25,000 fully grown trees transplanted • Power centered in court, important nobles pressured to maintain presence

  17. Versailles

  18. The European States System • No imperial authority to mediate regional disputes • Peace of Westphalia (1648) after Thirty Years’ War • European states to be recognized as sovereign and equal • Religious, other domestic affairs protected • Warfare continues: opposition to French expansion, Seven Years’ War • Balance of Power tenuous • Innovations in military technology proceed rapidly