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  1. Hinduism

  2. Words to Know Vedas Ganges River Reincarnation Polytheism/Monotheistic Karma Caste System

  3. Ethnic group vs. Religious Group Ethnic groups share many common characteristics such as language, physical features, customs, and traditions Religious groups share a common belief system but are not necessarily composted of a single ethnic group.

  4. Monotheistic or Polytheistic??? Is Hinduism a polytheistic or perhaps even monotheistic religion. This is chiefly a western difficulty: the Indians ares much more inclined to regard divergent views as complementary rather than competing. Part of the problem is that Hinduism has many, many gods. The gods of modern Hinduism include the chief gods Shiva, Vishnu and the Mother Goddess Shakti as well as a myriad of local community gods.

  5. Monotheistic!! Devotion to these various deities is based primarily on one's region and needs, and even when devotion is given to only one, the existence of others is acknowledged. Hindu worship virtually always involves sculptures and images, to which offerings are made and rituals are performed. Despite these polytheistic elements, however, many Hindus explain that the gods are various forms of a single Supreme Being . The Upanishads (Holy Text), explain that there exists a single Supreme Reality, called Brahman.

  6. Background Hinduism is a religion that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is one of the world's oldest existing religions. Hinduism has no single founder. It is the world's third largest religion following Christianity and Islam, with approximately a billion followers, of whom about 905 million live in India and Nepal. Other countries with large Hindu populations include Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Hinduism scriptures/text are known as the Vedas.

  7. Hindu place of worship Hindu practitioners can worship in temples or at home

  8. Hindu Beliefs • Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include • Dharma (ethics/duties) • Samsāra (The continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth) • Karma (action and subsequent reaction) • Moksha (liberation from samsara) • and the various yogas (paths or practices)

  9. Ahimsa and vegetarianism Hindus advocate the practice of ahimsa (non-violence) and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals. In accordance with ahiṃsā, many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef. The largely pastoral Vedic people and subsequent generations relied heavily on the cow for protein-rich milk and dairy products, tilling of fields and as a provider of fuel and fertilizer. Thus, it was identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure. Hindu society honors the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving. Cow-slaughter is legally banned in almost every province of India.

  10. Varnas and the class system (Caste) • Hindu society has traditionally been categorized into four classes, called Varnas • the Brahmins: teachers and priests; • the Kshatriyas: warriors, nobles, and kings; • the Vaishyas: farmers, merchants, and businessmen; and • the Shudras: servants and labourers.

  11. Interactive Notebook Question (Left Side) Think-Pair-Share What parts of Hinduism is similar to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam?

  12. Devas and avatars The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities, called Devas, "the shining ones", which may be translated as "gods“. Hindu epics relate several episodes of the descent of God to Earth in order to restore dharma in society and guide humans to moksha (liberation from the cycle of rebirth). Such an incarnation is called an avatar. The most prominent avatars are of Vishnu, and include Rama and Krishna

  13. Karma, samsara and moksha Karma translates literally as action, work or deed.According to the scriptures, an individual develops sanskaras (impressions) from actions, whether physical or mental. These impressions carrying over into the next life. This cycle of action, reaction, birth, death, and rebirth is called reincarnation. Reincarnation and karma is a strong premise in Hindu thought. The ultimate goal of life, referred to as moksha, nirvana or samadhi, is understood in several different ways: as one's union with God; as one's eternal relationship with God; unity of all existence; perfect unselfishness and knowledge of the Self; attainment of perfect mental peace; or as detachment from worldly desires. Such a realization liberates one from samsara and ends the cycle of rebirth.

  14. Interactive Notebook Question • Think-Pair-Share • How does Reincarnation work? • What if I were a good person in life, what could I come back as?

  15. Yoga • A practitioner of yoga is called a yogi. Paths one can follow to achieve the spiritual goal of life (moksha, samadhi, or nirvana) include: • Bhakti Yoga (the path of love and devotion), • Karma Yoga (the path of right action), • Rāja Yoga (the path of meditation) and • Jñāna Yoga (the path of wisdom). • An individual may prefer one yoga over others according to his or her inclination and understanding.

  16. History Hinduism dates back to (5500–2600BCE). Three key events undermined Hinduism. These were the Upanishads, Mahavira (founder of Jainism) and the Buddha (founder of Buddhism).[ The Upanishads, Mahavira and Buddha taught that to achieve moksha or nirvana, one did not have to accept the authority of the Vedas or the caste system. Buddha went a step further and claimed that the existence of a Self/soul or God was unnecessary. Buddhism and Jainism adapted elements of Hinduism into their beliefs.

  17. Islam came to India in the early 7th century with Arab traders and the later Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. During this period Buddhism declined rapidly and many Hindus converted to Islam. Some Muslim rulers destroyed Hindu temples and persecuted non-Muslims, while others, such as Akbar, were more tolerant.

  18. Rituals and ceremonies The vast majority of Hindus engage in religious rituals on a daily basis. Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home. However, observation of rituals greatly vary among regions, villages, and individuals. Devout Hindus perform daily chores such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns, meditation, chanting mantras, reciting scriptures etc. On death, cremation is considered obligatory for all except a few. Cremation is typically performed by wrapping the corpse in cloth and burning it on a pyre.

  19. Interactive Notebook Question (Left Side) Think-Pair-Share How would reincarnation affect the caste system?

  20. Ganga (Ganges) River The Ganges 2:00 The Ganges 7:00 The Ganges is a major river in the Indian subcontinent flowing east into Bangladesh. It has been revered for millennia by India's Hindus, by whom it is worshipped as the goddess Ganga. According to Hindus the river Ganga is sacred. Hindu belief holds that bathing in the river causes the forgiveness of sins. People travel from distant places to immerse the ashes of their kin in the waters of the Ganga; this immersion also is believed to send the departed soul to heaven. Several places sacred to Hindus lie along the banks of the river Ganga, including Haridwar and Kashi. People carry sacred water from the Ganges that is sealed in copper pots after making the pilgrimage to Kashi. It is believed that drinking water from the Ganga with one's last breath will take the soul to heaven.

  21. Hindus also believe life is incomplete without bathing in the Ganga at least once in their lifetime. In most Hindu families, a vial of water from the Ganga is kept in every house. This is done because it is auspicious to have water of the Holy Ganga in the house, and also if someone is dying, that person will be able to drink its water. Many Hindus believe that the water from the Ganga can cleanse a person's soul of all past sins, and that it can also cure the ill. Some of the most important Hindu festivals and religious congregations are celebrated on the banks of the river Ganga such as the KumbhMela and the ChhatPuja. It has hundreds of temples along the banks of the Ganges which often get flooded during the rains. This city, especially along the banks of the Ganges, is an important place of worship for the Hindus as well as a cremation ground.

  22. How do Septic Systems work?

  23. How does a city sewage system work?

  24. It’s Gross

  25. Learning Log-Hinduism(1st, 2nd, and 6th periods) Since the Ganges River is so polluted, how may that affect the standard of living and the economy of India? (use your notes, 3 paragraphs)

  26. Learning Log-Hinduism(3rd and 5th periods) Essay: Since the Ganges River is so polluted, how may that affect the standard of living and the economy of India? How can India prevent future pollution? (use your notes, the textbook, and further research to write 5 paragraphs minimum)

  27. Summarization Activity 1 On the left hand side of your INB… Draw the Ganges River and how it is used by the local inhabitants.

  28. Summarization Activity 2 On the left hand side of your INB… List the differences between Hinduism and Christianity.

  29. Bibliography • Hinduism. January 2008. • Hinduism. Religious Tolerance. January 2008 • Hinduism Today. December 2007 • October 26, 2010