Warm Up • What were the two leading nations involved in the Cold War? • What common goal did these nations have during WWII? • What were Stalin’s two goals after WWII? • What was the “Iron Curtain”? Who coined the term? Where did he give the speech? • Who dominated the Eastern bloc? The Western? • What city in Germany was divided much like the rest of the country?
Cold War Project • Find the picture or photo on the wall that matches your summary card (there are 22 pictures and 22 summary cards) • Draw a simple sketch of the picture or photo at the top or bottom of your paper (pen or pencil)
Cold War Project 3. Write 5 to 8 key terms, facts, ideas or concepts from the summary card on your paper (sentences, notes, or outline form). Focus on explaining what occurred, which countries and/or people were involved, and why it was a Cold War event.
Cold War Project • Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 for all 22 summary cards • Type all 22 summaries (one on each page). Title of event must be at the top of the page, text in the middle, photo or picture at the bottom (picture can be drawn or taken from Clip Art or internet). • Your 22 pages must be in chronological order • Front of packet must have a title page. Type a table of contents for your second page.
Cold War Project • Packet must be arranged in a binder or folder (DO NOT STAPLE) • All summaries must be in YOUR OWN WORDS. Students with identical summaries will not receive credit.
Cold War Project • Iron Curtain • Truman Doctrine • Marshall Plan • Berlin Airlift • NATO & Warsaw Pact • Fall of China • Korean War • Domino Theory • Hungarian Revolt • Space Race • U2 Crisis 12. Bay of Pigs 13. Berlin Wall 14. Cuban Missile Crisis 15. Vietnam War 16. Springtime in Prague • Détente • Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan • Solidarity • Invasion of Grenada • Mikhail Gorbachev • Massacre at Tiananmen Square
Iron Curtain • Churchill coins the term, “Iron Curtain” in Missouri • Iron curtain refers to the line between democratic and communist nations • March 5th, 1946
Truman Doctrine • March 12th, 1947 • Containment • stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere
Marshall Plan • The Marshall Plan was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the allied countries of Europe, and repelling communism after World War II • Named after secretary of state George Marshall • 13 billion given to Europe • July, 1947
Berlin Airlift • June 24th, 1948 • Soviets blocked all routes into Berlin • No supplies could reach Berlin • US drops supplies into Berlin • Tensions raised
NATO & The Warsaw Pact • April 4th, 1949 • NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Warsaw Pact = Soviet’s answer to NATO • Named after Warsaw in Poland
Fall of China • October 1949 • Shows that Containment is not working • Mao Zedong (Communist) vs. Chiang Kai-shek (Nationalist) • US gives Chiang Kai-shek money to help fight the Communists • Chiang Kai-shek flees to Taiwan
Korean War • First military conflict that the US participates in to contain communism • 38th Parallel divides North and South Korea • June 25th, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea • No victor in the Korean War
Domino Theory • 1954 • Eisenhower and his secretary of state John Foster Dulles coin this term • Nations will fall like dominos if we do not contain communism
Hungarian Revolt • 1953 Stalin dies • Khrushchev takes over and trashes Stalin in a famous speech • Khrushchev lets satellite countries have more say in how they run their country • Hungary has the greatest reforms • Hungary wanted to withdraw from Warsaw Pact
Space Race • 1957 • Sputnik was launched into space • Scared the US and jolted our confidence • 1958 the Soviets put a dog into space • 1961 USSR puts a man into space • Kennedy wanted to send a man to the moon
U-2 Crisis • U-2 Dragon Lady (spy plane) shot down over the Soviet Union • Pilot captured and put on trial • Francis Gary Powers was the pilot
Bay of Pigs • April 1961 • Kennedy promised to “defend freedom in its hour of maximum danger” • “Pay any price, beat any burden” • Fidel Castro leads revolution in Cuba and changes their govt. to communist • CIA trains Cuban ex-patriots to lead revolution in Cuba • Ex-patriots are slaughtered • US did not help in the invasion
Berlin Wall • August 1961 • East and West Berlin was divided by barbed wire • Not very effective – 1000’s fled • Berlin Wall was much more effective • Wall becomes ugly symbol of communism • Kennedy, “Ich bin ein Berliner”
Cuban Missile Crisis • “Arms Race” • October 14th, 1962 • U-2 spy plane takes pictures over Cuba and discovered nuclear missiles • Naval blockade • Soviets removed missiles • US had to promise they wouldn’t invade Cuba • US had to remove their missiles from Turkey
Vietnam • 1965-1973 • French colonized in Vietnam • Vietnamese leader – Ho Chi Minh • North Vietnam = communist • South Vietnam = democratic • US sends troops to South Vietnam • Frustrating war • Containment not working
Springtime in Prague • 1968 • Alexander Dubcek – leader of the Czech republic • Great reforms against communism • Soviets come in and restore their dominance • Manifesto Against Aggression • Sounds much like the Bill of Rights • Brezhnev Doctrine – Soviets could intervene in your govt. at any time
Detente • French word meaning relaxing or easing • 1972 • Short lived understanding between communist and capitalistic worlds • Nixon travels to Beijing and Moscow • Ultimately our differences were too great • The US boycotts the 1980 summer Olympics due to the Soviets invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan • December 1979 • Soviets invade Afghanistan and execute the President and his family • BabrakKarmal becomes the new President • President Jimmy Carter suspends arms control race, cuts off all grain supplies and boycotts the 1980 Olympic games • War between Soviets and Mujahedin • This is the Soviet Union’s Vietnam
Solidarity • September 1980 • Struggle against communist regime in Poland • Lech Walesa leads the movement against communism • 1981 they call for free elections • The Red Army was ready to strike • Soviets institute Martial Law and Solidarity is outlawed
The Invasion of Grenada • October 1983 • Maurice Bishop (leader of Grenada) became friendly with Fidel Castro and the communist government • Wanted to put a communist airbase on their island • Communists kill Maurice Bishop after his visit to the United States • Reagan orders the invasion of Grenada
Mikhail Gorbachev • 1985 • Glasnost = openness • Perestroika = economic and political reform • Free market system introduced • Ethnic division and nationalism within the Soviet Union • Signs intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) treaty • Pulls soldiers out of Afghanistan • Berlin Wall is torn down
Massacre at Tiananmen Square • June 1989 • Tiananmen located in Beijing China • Communist economy in China very weak • Overly harsh and dictatorial government • New Communist leader Deng Xiaoping lets in a small amount of capitalism and allows students to study abroad • When students get back they protest peacefully at Tiananmen square • Chinese military breaks up the protest and kills 500 to 1000 people