The Power of Spain Chapter 18: Section 1
Main Idea • Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s.
Goals • Identify the challenges King Charles I faced when he became Emperor Charles V (the fifth). • Analyze some artistic achievements of Spain’s golden age. • Chart the rise and decline of Spain under Philip II.
The King Becomes Emperor • 1516 Charles became King Charles I of Spain. • Member of the Hapsburg family • Absolute Monarch
Terms to Know • Absolute Monarch- Ruler whose power was not limited by nobles common people or their reps. • Divine Right- Monarch received their power from God and could not be challenged.
Charles V and the Empire • His territory • Countries of Belgium, Netherlands, colonies in the Americas • Bought votes to become Holy Roman Emperor. • Charles I became Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. • Large empire with lots of enemies • Turks, France, German princes
Charles V and the Empire • Wanted Europe to be Roman Catholic • Protestant Reformation threatened his power. • Declared Martin Luther an outlaw • Rebellions against Catholic rulers spread Martin Luther
Peace of Augsburg • After years of religious wars Charles V signed the Peace of Augsburg (right). • Gave each German prince the right to choose whether his state would be protestant or catholic
Success in the Americas • Charles V claimed much of the Americas for Spain. • Hernan Cortes (Aztecs) • Coronado (explored the Southwest) • Gold from the Americas made Spain super wealthy. Hernan Cortes
Dividing the Empire • Charles V gave up his throne in 1556. • Divided his empire between his brother and his son, (Philip II). Philip II of Spain
The Golden Century • 1550-1650 Spain had a golden age known as the Golden Century, of artistic achievement. • El Greco(right) was one of the most important painters of this period
Diego Velasquez • Created masterpieces that portray people of all social classes with great dignity. • He was the court painter.
Diego Velasquez Vieja friendo huevos (1618, English: An Old Woman Frying Eggs). National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh.
Literature • Miguel de Cervantes • Don Quixote de la Mancha • Sis. Juana Ines de la Cruz • Poet, playwright • Believed women had the right to education
Spain under Philip II • Spain reached its peak during his reign • Cause: Gold and silver from their colonies in the Americas.
Religion and Revolt • Philip II saw himself as leader of the Counter-Reformation. • Married Queen Mary I of England who was also a Catholic • She died before having an heir to the throne Philip and Mary I
Philip II wanted to all the people in all of his territories Catholic. • Clashed with Calvinist Protestantism • Duke of Alba- Court of Blood tortured and executed thousands • Revolt lasted for decades • True in 1609 • Independent nation of the Netherlands formed
Spain and England • Big rivalry between Spain and England • Source?: Spain=Catholic & England = Protestant. • English helped the Dutch in revolt against Spain. • England attacked Spanish treasure ships coming from the Americas.
Sir Francis Drake • English Sea Dog • Stole gold and silver from Spanish treasure ships for England. • Destroyed 30 ships in a Spanish harbor. • Made things difficult for the Spanish
Spanish Armada (1588) • 130 ships • 20,000 soldiers and sailors • Called invincible or unbeatable. • Series of battle greatly damaged the Armada. • English used fire ships and Spanish fled. • Destroyed by storms on the return to Spain
An Empire in Decline • Reasons for decline • Philip II had to make every decision. • He used all the gold and silver coming out of Americas to fight wars. • Borrowed money & went bankrupt four times. • Did not develop industries. • Spain gradually declined for the next 100 years.