Exploring poetry Universitas Singaperbangsa Karawang Anisa Risatyah,S.Pd
Outline • Review : 1. types of poetry 2. Voice 3. Diction 4. Imagery 5. Figurative language 6. Symbolism
1. Types of poetry • Poetry can be grouped into narrative and lyric poetry • Narrative poetry: tell stories and describe actions e.g. - Epics (long narrative poems that record the adventures of a hero whose exploits are important to the history of a nation - ballads - romance
1. Types of poetry (cont.) • Lyric poetry focuses more on the emotion. • Lyrics an be defined as subjective poems, often brief, expresses the feelings and thoughts of a single speaker (who may or may not represent the poet). • E.g. - Epigram (a brief witty poem that is often satirical) - Ode (a long stately poem in stanzas of varied length, meter, and form) • Aubade (a love lyric expressing complaint that the speaker must part from his lover) • Sonnet (a lyric poem consists of fourteen lines)
2. Voice and tone • The speaker’s voice conveys tone • Tone is an abstraction we make from the datails of a poem’s language: meter, diction, imagery, figures of speech. • Listen to a poem’s language, hear the voice of its speaker -> we catch the tone and feeling and meaning • What is the tone in Wordsworth’s I wandered lonely as a cloud?
3. Diction • Words choice • To understand not only the words’ meaning but also understand what the words imply or suggest. • Words have both denotation (dictionary meaning) and connotation (association meaning, implied meaning). • William Wordsworth’s I wandered lonely as a cloud.
William Wordsworth’s I wandered lonely as a cloud I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o’er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. *Golden (adj) : made of gold, the colour of gold connotation meaning: light (it shines and glitters), wealth (money and fortune)
4. Imagery • Images are words or phrases that appeal to our senses. • Imagery refers to the combinations or clusters of images that are used to create a dominant impression. • Imagery may be visual (something seen) aural (something heard) tactile (something felt) Olfactory (something smelled) Gustatory (something tasted)
Thomas Hardy’s Neutral Tones We stood by a pond that winter day, And the sun was white, as though chidden of God, And a few leaves lay on the starving sod; -- They had fallen from an ash, and were gray
5. Figurative Language Any use of language which deviates from the obvious or common usage in order to achieve a special meaning or effect. e.g. simile, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, personification, hyperbole, euphemism, etc.
Simile Metaphor Implied comparison which creates a total identification between the two things being compared. 3 elements: tenor, vehicle, ground. e.g. Life is a rollercoaster Tenor? Vehicle? Ground? • Figure of speech in which a comparison between two distinctly different things is indicated by the words ‘like’ , ‘as’, or ‘than’ • 3 elements: tenor, vehicle, ground Life is like a rollercoaster Tenor (subject) : life Vehicle (comparison): rollercoaster Ground (tenor + vehicle have in common) : it has its ups and downs
Metonymy Synecdoche Greek: taking together A part of something is used to signify the whole, or vice versa. e.g. Many hands make light work (proverb) I am reading Dickens • Greek: a change of name • Term for one thing is applied to another which it has become closely associated. e.g. crown refers to a king the White House refers to official Washington home for the President/ the American government itself
Personification Hyperbole A figure of speech which employ exaggeration, extreme, or excessive. E.g. ? • A form of comparison in which human characteristics, such as emotion, personality, behaviour, and so on, are attributed to animal, object, or idea. • Is intended to make ideas clearer to the readers by comparing the object to everyday human experience. e.g.?
6. Symbolism A symbol is any object or action that means more than itself, any object or action that represents something beyond itself. e.g. rose : beauty, love tree : family’s root and branches soaring bird : freedom light : hope, knowledge, life
Cultural or shared symbols Literary or personal symbols Authors’ own original symbols Do not have pre-established associations : the meaning emerges from the context • are widely recognized and accepted • are needed careful examination e.g. Dawn = hope white = innocence dark = ignorance light = knowledge
First assignment • Format - Times New Roman, 12, double space, A4, normal margin. • Tittle : First Assignment – Exploring Poetry An analysis on (poem’s tittle) by: (names of group) • Due date and time • Submit the assignment via e-mail before or on the agreed due date and time • Late submission will not be accepted - Any plagiarism/ copy-pasted assignment results on zero score. No revision.