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Structure and Function of the Cell

Structure and Function of the Cell

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Structure and Function of the Cell

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  1. Structure and Function of the Cell Introduction 4 - 1

  2. Discovery of the Cell • In 1665, Robert Hooke used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork. • In 1673, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe living cells.

  3. The Cell Theory • All Living Things are composed of one or more cells. • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism. • Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells.

  4. Trio of German Scientists • In 1838, Botanist Matthias Schleiden concluded Plants were made of cells.

  5. Trio of German Scientists • In 1839, Zoologist Theodor Schwann concluded Animals were made of cells.

  6. Trio of German Scientists • In 1855, Physician Rudolf Virchow reasoned that cells come only from other cells.

  7. Cell Diversity • Not all Cells are alike. They differ in : • Size • Shape • Internal Organization

  8. Cell Cell Theory Eukaryote Cell Membrane Nucleus Organelle Prokaryote Key Vocabulary

  9. Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell Section 4 - 2

  10. Eukaryotic Cells • The word part “EU” means “True” and “Kary” means “Nucleus.”

  11. Eukaryotic Cells • The structures that make up a eukaryotic cell are determined by the specific functions carried out by the cell. Thus, there is no typical eukaryotic cell.

  12. Examples

  13. And

  14. Eukaryotic Cells • Generally have three main components: • A cell membrane • A nucleus • Other Organelles

  15. Cell Membrane • Selectively permeable • Made primarily of lipids and proteins (go to 5 )

  16. Organelles • Between the Cell Membrane and the Nucleus lies the Cytoplasm.- A gelatin-like aqueous fluid called the Cytosol. • The Cytoplasm contains the Organelles of the cells.

  17. Mitochondria • The power plants of the cell. • The site where most ATP is made. • Has its own DNA. • Has a double membrane referred to as the outer and inner- the inner is composed of many folds called the Cristae. • Endosymbiosis theory. • Believed to be related to Prokaryotes.

  18. Endosymbiosis theory • A hypothesis about the origin of the eukaryotic cell, maintaining that the forerunners of eukaryotic cells were symbiotic associations of prokaryotic cells living inside larger prokaryotes. • Symbiosis. • An ecological relationship between organisms of two different species that live together in direct contact.

  19. Ribosomes • The most numerous organelle. • Important role in synthesis of proteins. • An assemblage of RNA and Proteins. • Some are free in the Cytosol and others are attached to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Attached or surrounding the Nucleus. • Rough ER. • Prominent in cells that make large amounts of proteins. • Smooth ER. • involved in the regulation of calcium in muscle cells.

  21. Golgi Apparatus • Is the processing, packaging, and secreting organelle of the cell (UPS) • Looks similar to the ER but not attached to it.

  22. Lysosomes • Spherical organelles that enclose hydrolytic enzymes with in single membranes. • Digests: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, DNA, and RNA. (janitors)

  23. Lysosome Microfilament Rough ER Golgi Apparatus Smooth ER

  24. Cytoskeletons • Microfilaments and Microtubules • They are designed to provide structure and support to the cell.

  25. Cilia and Flagella • Cilia"silly-ah", • is a hair-like structure that provides movement to a cell. • Flagella"fla-gel-ah." • is a tail-like structure found on unicellular organisms to provide movement by use of a whipping motion. • Both are composed of 9 pairs of microtubules arranged around a central pair.

  26. Cilia cross-section