World War Two The Causes
World War Two • In the 1930’s Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to build new empires. • All three became aggressive in taking over land. • The League of Nations was weak and could not stop this aggressive imperialism. • Western nations were trying to recover from a depression and at first paid little attention to Italy, Germany or Japan. • Western nations did not want war.
Italy • In 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia looking for new land. • The Ethiopians had outdated weapons and could not stop the Italian Army. • The Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations for help. • The League could do little but try to ban the sale of weapons to Italy. Not all countries agreed to the ban.
Japan • In 1931 Japan invades Manchuria. When the League of Nations condemns the act Japan withdraws from the League.
Japan • In 1937 Japan invades mainland China. • The Chinese army outnumbers the Japanese however the Japanese have better weapons. • Japan overruns China and sets up a puppet government in Nanjing. • The Japanese are so brutal to the Chinese at Nanjing that the Japanese control over Nanjing is called the “rape of Nanjing”
Germany • Hitler glorifies war as a way of restoring national pride to Germany. (Militarism).
Germany • Hitler begins a policy of German land expansion later known as lebensraum or “living space”. • Hitler rebuilds the German Army a direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany • In 1936 Hitler moves troops into the Rhineland on the boarder of France. A direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany • In March 1938 Hitler moves troops into Austria creating an Anschluss or union between Austria and Germany. • A direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. • Britain and France ignore the pledge to help Austria.
Germany • In September 1938 Hitler demanded the western part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland become part of Germany. • Hitler claimed that 3 million German speaking people lived there and should be German territory.
Appeasement • The Czech Government refused to give the Sudetenland to Hitler. • The Czech’s had an alliance with France and asked France for help. • Britain and France began to prepare for war.
Appeasement/The Munich Conference To avoid war Mussolini sets up a meeting between France, Britain, Italy and Germany The meeting called the Munich Conference is held Sept. 29, 1938 The Czechs are not invited British Prime Minister Chamberlain tries to preserve peace Chamberlain gives into Hitler’s demands On Sept. 30, 1938 Hitler takes over the Sudetenland Hitler agrees to respect Czechoslovakia's new boarders. War is avoid. March 1939 German troops take over the rest of Czechoslovakia.
Nazi/Soviet Nonaggression Pact • France and Britain asked the Soviet Union to help stop German aggression. • The democracies of France and Britain and the Communist of the Soviet Union did not trust each other.
Nazi/Soviet Nonaggression Pact • Hitler also began talks with the Soviet Union. • On August 23, 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union agreed not to attack each other. • Now only France and Britain could stop Hitler. • Hitler was also clear to invade Poland.
The Invasion of Poland • In April 1939 Hitler demanded the upper western part of Poland be returned to Germany. • France and Britain refused. • On Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invaded Poland and started World War Two.
Axis Powers • Germany, Italy and Japan formed the Axis Powers.
Classwork • You are a foreign diplomat who is working for the U.S. Government and you are to report vital information back to the government on events in Europe and Asia. • The government is expecting a detailed brief on the events and it is of top priority. • In your brief list/identify/explain • key people and events, any pacts or treaties, and what the U.S. government should be watchful of or might have to deal with in Europe and Asia.