The End of the War Any writing in orangeis a hyperlink that once clicked will take you to website or video with more information on the subject.
Stalingrad • Hitler then attacked Stalingrad in the Soviet Union. As winter approached, the German commander wanted to retreat. Hitler refused. • Thousands of Nazis had no supplies and died during the harsh winter. This defeat left little hope of the Nazis conquering the Soviet Union. • What did the battle of Stalingrad mean?
D-Day • June 6, 1944 General Dwight Eisenhower directed the largest combined land-sea-air invasion in history. • Over 100,000 Allied troops came ashore the beaches of Normandy in France. • The surprise attack on the Germans began their retreat. Although 10,000 Allied soldiers died, it was a success. The Allies were advancing.
The invasion army was split into five forces. The two American forces (1 and 2 on the map) struck in the west.
The end of the war in Europe • After the d-day invasion the allies began to push back axis forces. • In an attempt to stop the allied offense Hitler launched on final attack the Battle of the Bulge • Casualties were high on both sides but Germany was eventually pushed back • By Feburary of 1945 war in Europe was coming to an end.
Yalta conference • Yalta conference: where the allied leaders came together to discuss the end of the war. Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt attended. • April 1945 the Russian army reaches the German capital of Berlin. Hitler commits suicides April 3oth. • May 7 Germany surrenders.
The Atomic Bomb • Although the Japanese faced certain defeat, they continued to fight. Their refusal to surrender led the U.S. to use a powerful new weapon: the atomic bomb. • Albert Einstein (German born) wrote President Roosevelt in 1939 and told him that the Germans may try to use the energy of the atom to build a bomb. • The Manhattan Projectwas created to build an atomic bomb.
U.S. warns Japan to surrender • Japan would face “prompt and utter destruction.” • President Truman ordered the use of the bomb on August 6th, 1945. • A bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and three days later a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
Click here for video on the effects of Hiroshima Hiroshima The heat was so intense from the bomb that many victims actually were incinerated .
Nagasaki People wondered in confusion after the blast. Many were already dying from radiation but they do not know it.
Skin melted on its victims, the woman’s pattern on her dress sears into her flesh
Nagasaki Before After
This chart shows the after effects for decades after the Bomb. Survivors developed cancer and birth defects.
The destruction • The first bomb leveled Hiroshima and killed about 70,000 people. • The second on Nagasaki killed about 40,000. • Thousands more were injured, and many died later from radiation. • September 2, 1945 Japan officially surrenderd. • Describe the effects of the bomb.
The effects of the War • Life lost: • 20 million soldiers dead • 10 million civilians- both sides fought a war without boundaries.
The Marshall Plan- Program in which the United States provided economic aid to Europe. • Nuremberg Trials: Tribunal that tried Nazi leaders for war crimes United Nation: International peace Keeping organization.
Nuclear weapons and where we are today. • Article: “Every question you have about nuclear war but are afraid to ask.”
Reflection question • Do you think President Truman made the right decision to use nuclear weapon against Japan? Explain