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  1. Warm-up • Create a KWL chart. • What do you KNOW about human growth and development? • What are 2 questions you WANT to learn about the topic?

  2. LEQ • What are the 4 types of developmental milestones?

  3. Human Growth

  4. What is the relevance? • Medical professionals need to understand stages of growth of development • Different periods of life present unique challenges, changes, and problems • How one handles those challenges influences their health and the next stage in their lives • Therefore, wellness (which is what the medical world is striving for) depends partly on the stages of growth & development!

  5. Developmental Milestones… For each period of growth & development, there are 4 major parameters within which developmental milestones (significant points in the growth process) occur: • Physical development: actual bodily changes (some are measurable; ex. Height/weight) • Intellectual-cognitive development: thinking skills developed during a particular period of growth & development

  6. Developmental Milestones cont… • Psycho-emotional development: changes in feelings a client is likely to experience during a particular period • Social development: how a client relates to those around them (family, friends, co-workers; interactions depend on who they are interacting with) • Copy Table 7.1 on pg 251

  7. Principles of Growth & Development Knowledge will help you remember the order in which everything should occur!! • In the uterus the embryo & fetus develop in a “head-to-tail” manner known as cephalocaudal • Means the brain and an elementary nervous system develop first • Embryo refers to the human being growing in the uterus conception to the 8th wk - Fetus refers to the human from the end of 8th wk until birth

  8. Principles of Growth & Development cont… - Children learn “gross” motor skills first (ex: walking) - “Fine” motor skills are learned later (ex: drawing) - Development is influenced by genetics • Genes: units of hereditary material contained in human cells; it’s what makes us individuals • Each person’s set of genes is unique • Environment also influences an individual • Do you believe we are more a product of our environment, our heredity, or both? Why? • Discuss your stance with your neighbor

  9. Answer LEQ Have a great day!

  10. Warm-up At what point do you believe that a person becomes a “person”?

  11. Interesting videos… • The Miracle of Life • Remarkable: Twins Separated • Twins: Is it all in the genes? • Couple Gives Birth to Twins: One Black, One White • Conjoined Twins

  12. LEQ • What is the difference between implantation and conception?

  13. Conception through Teenage Years • Pregnancy lasts 10 lunar months (40 weeks/ 9 calendar months/ 266-280 days) • Consists of 3 trimesters of 3 months each(1st, 2nd, 3rd) (Below: Fetus at 16 weeks) (Conception)

  14. The First Trimester First Trimester

  15. What happens in the 1st Trimester? • Conception occurs when one sperm, traveling with millions of others, penetrates the ovum in the outer one-third of the fallopian tube. The Great Sperm Race • Fallopian Tube: tube that extends from the uterus to the ovary (2) • The process is also known as fertilization • The fertilized ovum (egg) is a cell called a zygote • the zygote travels through the fallopian tube toward the uterus, dividing and growing along the way • Becomes 2 cells, to 4 cells, …8, 16, 32..etc From egg to embryo

  16. This journey takes only 3-5 days • The cell-root like structure on the back which will become the placentas (morula) look like a cluster of grapes • Implantation occurs when the cluster attaches itself into the upper rear wall of the uterus • The root-like projection penetrates blood vessels. The cells facing away from the uterine wall become the outer fetal membrane, or chorion • Amniotic sac develops over these 2 groups of cells • A membrane that surrounds the fetus • The outer group of cells starts to develop into a shape that is the head and a tail

  17. It all happens so fast!!! • 21-25 days, a heart begins to beat and nervous system starts to develop! • 4 weeks: embryo is ¼“ long • Arm buds bulge • Consists of head, body, and tail • Eyes and ears can be detected • 5 weeks: a nose is visible • 6 weeks: almost ½”, floating in amniotic sac • Leg buds appear • 7 weeks:¾” and can move hands • Fingers are defined, organs are visible, skull bones are growing! Embryo at 3 wks Embryo at 7 wks

  18. The end of the 1st trimester… • 8 weeks: almost 1”, liver is large, bones are forming, testes and ovaries are distinguishable • At 8 weeks, developing infant is called a fetus • 10 weeks: 1 ½”– 2”, kidneys produce urine, lower trunk muscles develop • About to end the 1st trimester • Show “How to Make a Baby” video from USB Fetus at 10 weeks

  19. Answer LEQ Have a great day!

  20. Warm-up • In less than 8 words, define each of the 4 developmental milestones.

  21. Group Research Activity • Assignment Life: Abortion • In groups of 4, research your assigned abortion method in the library. Be ready to present after lunch. Include the following information: • The name - Create a brief PP with • What does it mean? this information – I will • How does it happen? save it on my USB • When can it happen? Costs? • Risks to mother? How safe is it? • How developed is the baby at this time? • Any laws banning this type? • Include pictures related to your method

  22. Types of Abortion • RU-486 • Suction aspiration • Dilation & Curettage (D&C) • Dilation & Evacuation • Saline Injection • Partial-birth abortion

  23. Warm-up Write about your decision to be pro-choice or pro-life. Defend it with specific reasons.

  24. Present projects • Present your project with your group. • Speak loudly and confidently • Write down 5 interesting facts you didn’t know about before the presentations. Be ready to share. • Reflect on your warm-up. Did your mind change after hearing about the methods?

  25. Answer LEQ Have a great day!

  26. Good morning, sunshines!  • For the warm-up, take out a sheet of paper. Number it 1-10. • Relax, it’s not a test.

  27. Answer these Questions… • Cephalocaudal literally means… • Embryo = ___ to ___ wks, Fetus = ___ to ___ wks • Pregnancy lasts for ___ wks with ___ trimesters • Fertilization occurs in the ______ (where?) • The ______ is a membrane that covers the fetus • During days ___ to ___, the heart begins to beat. • Name one example of a gross motor skill. • Name one example of a fine motor skill. • List the 4 developmental milestones. • Why is it important to know about human growth and development?

  28. LEQ • What develops in the 3rd trimester?

  29. The nd Trimester… • 12 weeks: begins the 2nd trimester; head is 1/3 of the entire length, ribs can be seen, hair begins to grow • 16 weeks: 4 ½” long, weighs 3-4 oz; human looking face, blood cells form in spleen, cerebrum covers brain parts, testicles of males position for descent. • Mother feels fetal movements, known as “quickening” • Heartbeat can be heard with fetal instruments (fetal doppler) Fetus at 14 weeks Fetal doppler

  30. (24 weeks) • 20-24 weeks: 12” long, major systems continue to develop, bones continue to form. • Fetus may suck its thumb • Eyes remain sealed closed • Survival at this point of pregnancy is unlikely (24 weeks) Fetal development

  31. rd Trimester (26 weeks +) • 28 Weeks: 14” and 2.5 lbs • Viable with an increased threat from infection & immaturity • Major developments in 3rd tri: weight gain, growth in length, & maturation of organs • Although viable, best place for growth & development is the uterus! • 38-40 weeks = FULL TERM • Fetal influences: whatever the mother consumes (alcohol, drugs, and tobacco can harm infant even in small amounts)

  32. Understanding Labor and Delivery • Labor and Birth



  35. Writing Prompt • Is life a miracle? Why or why not?

  36. Answer LEQ Have a great day!

  37. Warm-up Write about an interesting story from when you were a baby/toddler.

  38. LEQ What prenatal development is most essential and why?

  39. Warm-up • Tell me 3 interesting facts you learned yesterday about Ms. Gray’s job.

  40. The Neonate: Birth to One Month • Neonate: birth to 1 month • Physical Development: Usually weighs 7-9 lbs and is 18-22” in length • Heredity, maternal nutrition, etc affect the weight and length of baby • Newborn infant head is ¼ the size of the body

  41. Neonate… • Bones are not fixed at birth for the purpose of delivery • This permits molding (sliding of the bones over one another) • Molding may cause the head to look “pointy” but will quickly disappear and become more round • 2 soft spots (fontanels): really tough cartilage (page 255) • Anterior, or front fontanel, is diamond shaped • Closes between 1-2 yrs of age • Can see pulse here sometimes • Posterior, or back fontanel, is triangular shaped • Smaller and closes by 3rd month • Must support head!

  42. Newborn Skin • Usually loose and wrinkled and somewhat red • At birth, hands may be cyanotic (bluish) and usually pinken with a few breaths • Skin color varies first few days (temp, activity, and circulatory changes) • Skin may peel • Vernixcaseosa, a white waxy substance that protected the skin while in the uterus, may be in fold of skin • May also have lanugo (soft downy hair) covering body • Milia, small white bumps, are often around nose/chin and go away naturally

  43. Remaining umbilical cord “stump” (1-1.5”) white/waxy look and darkens prior to falling off near the 10th day -Jaundice, yellowing of the skin, can occur first few days (liver; too much bilirubin from RBC break down) -whites of eyes yellow, urine & feces dark yellow

  44. Other Physical Characteristics... • Page 257 • Newborn’s eyes may be puffy (traumatic journey!) • Possible blisters on lips from thumb sucking • Breast/genitalia may be swollen (mother’s hormones) • Closed fists & fetal position • REFLEXES in newborn: • Protective: Blinking, yawning, coughing, sneezing, withdrawing from pain • Grasping • Rooting (for food) • Sucking (reflexive upon something touching lips/mouth) • Babinski (fanning of toes from lateral aspect of sole) • How does that differ in adults? Babinski in Infants • Tonic neck (fencer position, when supine with head to side, extremities on same side straighten while the others flex) • Moro (startle reflex: body and arms straighten, knees flex and arms slowly return to chest while fingers open to a ‘C’, infant may cry; reflex lasts for 6 months) • Stepping

  45. Activity… 1. What stage of life are you in currently? 2. Identify 2 milestones that occur in each area of development in your current stage of life. 3. Identify 1 milestone/change in each area that has been challenging/frustrating/annoying and explain why. Use pages 272-274 to assist you. **Complete Section Review 7.1