Chapter 7: Verbals 7th Grade Language Arts
Lesson 1: Gerunds • A verbal is a word that is formed from a verb and that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. • There are three kinds of verbals: gerunds, participles, and infinitives.
Gerunds • A gerund is a verbal that ends in –ing and acts as a noun. • A gerund phrase consists of the gerund with its modifiers and complements.
gerunds • Gerunds may be used as subjects, predicate nouns, direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of prepositions.
gerunds • The loud barking of the dogs woke up our neighbor. • Gerund______________ • Use_____________
gerunds • They are experts at controlling sheep and cows. • Gerund____________ • Use_____________
gerunds • These dogs like working. • Gerund____________ • Use_____________
gerunds • Herding is something that border collies do well. • Gerund__________ • Use_____________
gerunds • They give herding their full attention • Gerund___________ • Use______________
gerunds • It is their running that directs other animals. • Gerund____________ • Use_____________
gerunds Gerunds are good words for describing activities because they imply action.
Lesson 2: Participles • A participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective. • A participial phrase consists of a participle along with its modifiers and complements.
participles Like all adjectives, participles and participial phrases can modify nouns and pronouns.
participles • A tired hiker woke a sleeping bear. • Participle 1: ________________ • Word it modifies: ________________ • Participle 2: ________________ • Word it modifies: ________________
Present participles • Present participles always end in –ing. • Growling, the bear rose from his slumber. • Participle: __________ • Word it modifies: __________
Past participles • Past participles of regular verbs end in –ed. • The terrified traveler wanted to run. • Participle: __________ • Word it modifies: __________
Irregular past participles • Past participles of irregular verbs are formed in a variety of ways. • Frozen by fear, he was grateful that the bear only licked him. • Participle: __________ • Word it modifies: __________
Words that end in -INg Words that end in –ing can be confusing because they can be a gerund, a participle, or part of a verb phrase. Here is how you can tell.
Words that end in -ing • Gerunds can be replaced by another noun. • We were annoyed by the moth’s fluttering. • Gerund • ___________ • Replacement • __________
Words that end in -ing • Participles can be replaced by another adjective. • The moth’s fluttering wings were white. • Participle:________________ • Replacement: ________________
Present participles and helping verbs • Present participles of a verb will always be preceded by a helping verb. • The moth was fluttering in the breeze. • Verb _____________ • Helping verb________
Lesson 3: Infinitives • An infinitive is a verb form that usually begins with the word to and acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. • An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive along with its modifiers and complements.
infinitives • Sam has always wanted to work on his own farm. • Infinitive:________________ • Role:_______________
infinitives • To run his farm takes Sam’s full energy. • Infinitive:________________ • Role:_______________
infinitives • They can be creatures to fear. • Infinitive:________________ • Role:_______________
infinitives • However, the bulls calm down to receive food. • Infinitive:________________ • Role:_______________
Infinitive Cheat sheet (Add to notes) • If the infinitive is a NOUN, it can be the S, DO, or PN. • If it’s a DO, it will FOLLOW THE VERB and answer the question, “What?” • If the Infinitive is an adjective, it will follow a noun (anywhere in the sentence) and tell which one, what kind or how many. • If the infinitive is an adverb, it will be after the verb (usually) and answer how or why. • If the infinitive is at the beginning of the sentence and is FOLLOWED BY A COMMA, it is an adverb and modifies the verb. If it is at the beginning of the sentence and is NOT followed by a comma it is a noun and is the subject of the sentence.
Lesson 4: Verbal phrases • A verbal phrase includes a verbal and any modifiers or complements it may have. • There are three types of verbal phrases:
Gerund phrases • Consist of the gerund plus its modifiers and complements. • The entire phrase is used as a noun. • Sunning himself is Silas the snake’s favorite activity. • Gerund phrase:_________________________
Participial phrases • Consist of a participle plus its modifiers and complements. • The entire phrase acts as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun. • Finishing his run, the horse walked for a few moments. • Participial Phrase: _______________________
Infinitive phrases • Consist of an infinitive plus its modifiers and complements. • The entire phrase acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
Infinitive phrases • To run free in peace and solitude was Luna’s greatest goal. • Infinitive phrase:________________________ • Function:________________________