Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: Introduction The conflict between Israel and the Palestinians is one that is: Extremely dangerous Long-lasting Animated by religious fervor
The Roots of the Conflict • 1896 – Zionism movement started in Europe (goalcreate a Jewish state in the holy land) • WWI – British promise Palestinian Arabs independence in exchange for their help. • 1917 – Balfour Declaration – British govt. supports the eventual creation of a Jewish nation in the area of Palestine. OOPS!!!
The Balfour Declaration, 1917 Expressing support for “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people…it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine…”
Jewish migration to Palestine Began in the 1920s 1920: 95% Palestinian; 5% Jewish [29,000] 1947: 68% Palestinian; 32% Jewish [630,000] Jewish population after the creation of Israel: 1948: 0.8 million 1964: 2.4 million Now: approximately 6.4 million Latest population influx after the disintegration of USSR 1939 British suspends ALL immigration to Palestine
Holocaust Connection • Post WWII – Many people in the world feel sorry for European Jews = support for creation of Israel. • David Ben-Gurion leads the movement to create Israel after WWII.
United Nations Partition Plan, 1947 • UN decides to split the land into two new nations (Israel and Palestine). • Israel accepts the plan / Palestinians rejects it. Tan: Jewish state Grey: Arab state White: International zone
War Breaks Out • David Ben-Gurion decides to declare Israel independent in May 1948. • Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq and Lebanon all declare war on Israel in support of the Palestinians. • War ends in a victory for Israel.
1967 War: The Six Day War Fearing attack by Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Jordan, Israel launched a preemptive strike Israel captured the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights.
1970s = beginning of terrorist attacks • In response to Israeli attacks on their communities, Palestinian terrorist groups are formed. • 1972 – Palestinian terrorists kidnap and later kill 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics.
WAR AGAIN!!!! • 1973 – Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. War results in a draw. • 1974 – Egypt and Israel make peace. Israel returns territory to Egypt.
1980s = still more conflict!! • 1981 – Israeli air force bombs a nuclear reactor in Iraq. • 1982-2000 – Israel invades Lebanon in order to stop terrorist attacks coming from there. • 1987 – Terrorist attacks increase in Israel.
1990s = more of the same? • 1993 – Israel and Palestinians sign agreement to begin peace talks. • 1994 – Jordan makes peace with Israel. • Bill Clinton with Yitzhak Rabin and Yassir Arafat.
Not so Fast!!! • Many Palestinian groups were not happy with the Oslo Accords (Hamas). Why? • Nov. 1995 – Rabin assassinated by a Jewish man unhappy with the Oslo Accords. • More violence breaks out!!!
2000 – today: Will it ever end? • 2006 – Israeli govt. forced all Jewish families to move out of the Gaza Strip (Palestinian territory). • 2006 – Israeli govt. began to build a wall around the West Bank to prevent terrorist attacks. • 2006 – Hamas (a terrorist organization) wins elections in the Gaza Strip. • 2007-2008 – Civil War erupts between Hamas and forces loyal to Arafat’s successor, Abbas. • 2008-2009 – mini-war erupts between Hamas in the Gaza Strip and Israeli military. • 2009 – H. Clinton meets with Abbas who calls for Israeli settlers to be removed from the West Bank, a free Palestinian capital in half of Jerusalem and the end to the blockade of the Gaza Strip.