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Oceanography 1 The Sea Floor

Oceanography 1 The Sea Floor. the sea floor. image source: http://www.npaci.edu/online/v6.12/hellyslides.html. The Sea Floor. Continental Margin Continental shelf Continental shelf break Continental slope Continental rise. Passive and Active Continental Margins.

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Oceanography 1 The Sea Floor

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  1. Oceanography 1The Sea Floor

  2. the sea floor image source: http://www.npaci.edu/online/v6.12/hellyslides.html

  3. The Sea Floor • Continental Margin • Continental shelf • Continental shelf break • Continental slope • Continental rise

  4. Passive and Active Continental Margins

  5. Bering Land Bridge Animation showing change in sea level

  6. passive margin--no plate boundary exists at edge of continent

  7. active continental margin: plate boundary exists at edge of continent

  8. Typical Passive Margin Profile

  9. Fig. 4.4

  10. Fig. 4.5

  11. Fig. 4.8

  12. Monterey Submarine Canyon

  13. Coastline flyby from Carmel to Santa Cruz

  14. How old is the Monterey Submarine Canyon? Maybe 5 million years old

  15. Fig. 4.10

  16. Turbidity Currents and Submarine Canyons

  17. Grand Banks Earthquake (1929) and Turbidity Currents

  18. Turbidites

  19. The Sea Floor • Ocean Basin Floor • Abyssal plain • Abyssal hills • Seamounts • Guyots • Fringing reefs • Barrier reefs

  20. Fig. 4.13

  21. CO 4

  22. guyots

  23. The Sea Floor • Ridges, Rises, and Trenches • Plate Tectonics

  24. Fig. 4.14

  25. Mid-Atlantic Ridge: sea floor spreading (divergent boundary) …basaltic volcanism and normal faults…(tensional stress) axial valley NORTH AMERICA AFRICA spreading from: http://www.geo.duke.edu/geo41/sfs.htm

  26. Mid-Atlantic ridge is exposed in Iceland…. fracture zone both from: http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text

  27. Fly By: Pittman Fracture Ridge

  28. hydrothermal circulation along ridge

  29. Hydrothermal Vent Animation

  30. Fig. 4.15

  31. Fig. 4.16

  32. Fig. 4.3

  33. The Sea Floor • Sediments • Particle size • Classification • Horizontal transport and sorting • Location • Classification: neritic or pelagic • Rates of deposit • Processes and variability

  34. The Sea Floor • Sediments • Source and chemistry • Lithogenous sediments • Biogenous sediments • Hydrogenous sediments • Cosmogenous sediments Coastline near Mavericks

  35. Table 4.5

  36. Table 4.1

  37. The Sea Floor • Sediments • Patterns of deposit on the sea floor • Processes and patterns • Climatic variations are recorded in layered sediments • Formation of rock • Sedimentary rock • Metamorphic rock

  38. Table 4.2

  39. The Sea Floor • Methods for measuring depths: • Hand line and wire marked with fathoms, with a lead weight on the end • Echo sounder, or depth recorder • Laser airborne depth sounder (LADS) • Satellites

  40. Fig. 4.18

  41. Fig. 4.20

  42. Fig. 4.21a Diatoms and coccolithophores: Siliceous Microplankton

  43. Radiolarians: silica tests Radiolarians: Siliceous Microplankton

  44. Sampling Methods Sampling Methods

  45. The Sea Floor • Sediments • Sampling methods • Dredges, grab samplers, a corer, and acoustic profiling • Sediments as historical records • Distribution and isotopic composition of skeletal remains

  46. Fig. 4.25a

  47. Fig. 4.26

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