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Inversion

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Inversion

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  1. Inversion Success Advanced Chapter 4

  2. What is inversion? • In statements the subject normally comes before the verb. • I hadn’tthought I would end up becoming a teacher. • Sometimes, after certain words or expressions, this word order is reversed and this is called inversion • NeverhadI thought I would end up becoming a teacher.

  3. When do we use inversion? • Inversion is used for dramatic emphasis. • It is most common in formal English. • Ishall never forget your kindness • Never • NevershallIforget your kindness.

  4. Now you try • Wedidnot get confirmation of our order until Wednesday. • Not until • Not until Wednesday didweget confirmation of our order • Ihaven’t ever seen such a big crowd. • Never • NeverhaveI seen such a big crowd.

  5. No auxiliary verb • If there is no auxiliary verb in the sentence we add: • Do in Present Simple sentences • subjects I, we, you, they • Does in Present Simple sentences • Subjects he, she, it • Did in Past Simple sentences • I never thought I would win. • Never NeverdidI think I would win.

  6. Now you try • I only understood what he meant many years later. • Not until • Not until many years later didI understand what he meant. • They rarely go on holiday. • Rarely • Rarelydotheygo on holiday.

  7. Inversion can be used with • Some time expressions with never • Never, Never before, Never again • Iwillnot go there again. • Never • Never again willI go there.

  8. Inversion can be used with • Some expressions with no/not/neither • No sooner … than, No longer, Nowhere, Not until, Not since, Not often, Not only … but, Neither … nor • Hughownsa Las Vegas hotel and a movie studio. • Not only ............................ but ............... • Not only doesHughown a Las Vegas hotel, buthe also owns a movie studio.

  9. Inversion can be used with • Some expressions with only • Only when, Only then, Only later • IrealisedI had made a mistake when I noticed the time. • Only when • Only when I noticed the time didIrealise that I had made a mistake.

  10. Inversion can be used with • Some other negative adverbials • Scarcely/Hardly/Barely … when, • Rarely, Seldom, Little • The chargers found themselves 7-0 down just after the game hadbegun. • Hardly......................when .................... • Hardlyhadthe game begun, whenthe Chargers found themselves 7-0 down.

  11. Inversion can be used with • So/Such … that • So emphasises an adjective • Such emphasis a noun • The soap opera wasso popular that people actually stayed home to watch it. • So • So popular wasthe soap opera that .......... • Such • Suchwasthe popularity of the soap opera that...

  12. Inversion can be used with • Some formal expressions • Under no circumstances • On no account • At no time • Cheating will not be tolerated . • Under no circumstances • Under no circumstances willcheatingbe tolerated

  13. You should not disclose personal details in emails. • On no account • On no account shouldyoudisclose personal details in emails. • Dictionaries are not to be removed from the library. • At no time • At no time aredictionariesto be removed from the library.