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Major Domestic Events

Major Domestic Events

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Major Domestic Events

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  1. Major Domestic Events • 1) Supreme Court Appointments (4) • Chief Justice: Warren Burger - strict constitutional interpretations; replaced Earl Warren (liberal) • Reluctant to dismantle “liberal” rulings of the Warren Court • Roe v. Wade (1973) passed by conservative court

  2. Warren Burger

  3. Major Domestic Events • 2) Nixon funds the “Great Society”: • Expansion of welfare programs • Food Stamps, Medicaid, AFDC (Aid to Families w/ Dependent Children) • New program: SSI (Supplemental Security Income) – assist the indigent aged, blind, & disabled • 1972 legislation  automatic Social Security cost of living increases

  4. Major Domestic Events • 3) Nixon’s Philadelphia Plan: • Requires construction & trade unions to establish “goals & timetables” for hiring black apprentices • Expanded to all federal contracts • “affirmative action” now means hiring quotas • 4) Nixon & the Supreme Court: • Many educational & employment opportunities opened to women & minorities

  5. Major Domestic Events • 5) The Environment: • 1970  EPA & OSHA • Clean Air Act of 1970 • Endangered Species Act of 1973 • Combated pollution – car emissions, cleaned up waterways & toxic waste sites • Modern muckraker  Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring

  6. Major Domestic Events • 6) Combating Inflation and the Trade Deficit: • 1971 imposed a 90 day wage & price freeze • To stimulate sagging exports – US taken off the gold standard; devalued the dollar

  7. The United States Bullion Depository

  8. The Nixon landslide of 1972 • Candidates: • (1) Nixon/ Agnew (R): campaign on record • foreign affairs: w/draw from Vietnam (500,000) – “Peace is at Hand” • Peiking & Moscow trips • SALT Pacts (Soviets) • domestic affairs: efforts  inflation • opposition to busing (for integration) • * Watergate break-in

  9. Henry Kissinger: "We believe peace is at hand"

  10. The Nixon landslide of 1972 • (2) George McGovern (D): Convention reform; greater representation for minorities + women • VP - Sargent Shriver • campaign: immediate peace in Vietnam • sharp military cuts • drastic social reforms • (3) George Wallace (I): assassination attempt!!

  11. Nixon 1972 Election

  12. The Nixon landslide of 1972

  13. Energy Problems • (1) Arab Oil Embargo (1973) • 4th Arab-Israeli War (Yom Kippur War); OPEC (raise prices; US embargo) • (2) Immediate & Long Range Programs • Immediate: conservation; adjust temperatures; speed limits; car pools • Long Range: conservation electric & nuclear plants; Alaska pipeline; explore US natural gas & petroleum  offshore

  14. In this 1974 photo, a man at a service station reads about the gas rationing system in an afternoon newspaper; a sign in the background states that no gas is available

  15. Flags & gas rationing stamps

  16. Other Issues • Resignation of Agnew • “No contest” – kickbacks, fraud, income tax evasion • Gerald Ford becomes VP • Watergate (see handout)

  17. Senator Robert Griffin (MI) shakes hands with President Richard M. Nixon while Vice Presidential nominee Gerald R. Ford chats with a well-wisher at a reception in the Blue Room following Nixon's announcement of Ford as his choice to succeed Spiro T. Agnew. October 13, 1973.

  18. The complex. The Kennedy Center is visible in the background. The boxy building at middle left is the former Howard Johnson's Motor Lodge, used during the 1972 Watergate burglaries to monitor the break-ins and wiretaps across the street.

  19. Nixon Resigns

  20. Nixon & Foreign Affairs • A. Vietnam: Nixon promises “peace with honor”; Vietnamization • The Nixon Doctrine: proclaimed that the US would honor its existing defense commitments but that in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars w/out the support of large bodies of US troops • 1973 - Kissinger negotiates a truce

  21. Nixon & Foreign Affairs (cont’d) • B. Middle East: US pledges support  Israel (right to exist) • US role in Yom Kippur War (energy crisis results) • Kissinger (disengagement agreements) • C. Detente w/ Russia: Nixon & Brezhnev • D. Arms Limitations: 1972 - SALT I treaties signed in Moscow • E. Improved Relations w/ China: 1972 - visit to China “journey for peace”

  22. Nixon & Foreign Affairs (cont’d) • F. Congress & Foreign Affairs: • (1) Cambodian (Khmer) Bombing Cutoff: despite truce w/ Vietnam; war in Cambodia continues; Congress w/holds funds; Nixon suspends bombing (Aug. ‘73) • (2) War-Powers Resolution of 1973: • JFK; LBJ; Nixon  war w/out declaration (Congress) • War Powers limits President’s power