Major Domestic Events • 1) Supreme Court Appointments (4) • Chief Justice: Warren Burger - strict constitutional interpretations; replaced Earl Warren (liberal) • Reluctant to dismantle “liberal” rulings of the Warren Court • Roe v. Wade (1973) passed by conservative court
Major Domestic Events • 2) Nixon funds the “Great Society”: • Expansion of welfare programs • Food Stamps, Medicaid, AFDC (Aid to Families w/ Dependent Children) • New program: SSI (Supplemental Security Income) – assist the indigent aged, blind, & disabled • 1972 legislation automatic Social Security cost of living increases
Major Domestic Events • 3) Nixon’s Philadelphia Plan: • Requires construction & trade unions to establish “goals & timetables” for hiring black apprentices • Expanded to all federal contracts • “affirmative action” now means hiring quotas • 4) Nixon & the Supreme Court: • Many educational & employment opportunities opened to women & minorities
Major Domestic Events • 5) The Environment: • 1970 EPA & OSHA • Clean Air Act of 1970 • Endangered Species Act of 1973 • Combated pollution – car emissions, cleaned up waterways & toxic waste sites • Modern muckraker Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring
Major Domestic Events • 6) Combating Inflation and the Trade Deficit: • 1971 imposed a 90 day wage & price freeze • To stimulate sagging exports – US taken off the gold standard; devalued the dollar
The Nixon landslide of 1972 • Candidates: • (1) Nixon/ Agnew (R): campaign on record • foreign affairs: w/draw from Vietnam (500,000) – “Peace is at Hand” • Peiking & Moscow trips • SALT Pacts (Soviets) • domestic affairs: efforts inflation • opposition to busing (for integration) • * Watergate break-in
The Nixon landslide of 1972 • (2) George McGovern (D): Convention reform; greater representation for minorities + women • VP - Sargent Shriver • campaign: immediate peace in Vietnam • sharp military cuts • drastic social reforms • (3) George Wallace (I): assassination attempt!!
Energy Problems • (1) Arab Oil Embargo (1973) • 4th Arab-Israeli War (Yom Kippur War); OPEC (raise prices; US embargo) • (2) Immediate & Long Range Programs • Immediate: conservation; adjust temperatures; speed limits; car pools • Long Range: conservation electric & nuclear plants; Alaska pipeline; explore US natural gas & petroleum offshore
In this 1974 photo, a man at a service station reads about the gas rationing system in an afternoon newspaper; a sign in the background states that no gas is available
Other Issues • Resignation of Agnew • “No contest” – kickbacks, fraud, income tax evasion • Gerald Ford becomes VP • Watergate (see handout)
Senator Robert Griffin (MI) shakes hands with President Richard M. Nixon while Vice Presidential nominee Gerald R. Ford chats with a well-wisher at a reception in the Blue Room following Nixon's announcement of Ford as his choice to succeed Spiro T. Agnew. October 13, 1973.
The complex. The Kennedy Center is visible in the background. The boxy building at middle left is the former Howard Johnson's Motor Lodge, used during the 1972 Watergate burglaries to monitor the break-ins and wiretaps across the street.
Nixon & Foreign Affairs • A. Vietnam: Nixon promises “peace with honor”; Vietnamization • The Nixon Doctrine: proclaimed that the US would honor its existing defense commitments but that in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars w/out the support of large bodies of US troops • 1973 - Kissinger negotiates a truce
Nixon & Foreign Affairs (cont’d) • B. Middle East: US pledges support Israel (right to exist) • US role in Yom Kippur War (energy crisis results) • Kissinger (disengagement agreements) • C. Detente w/ Russia: Nixon & Brezhnev • D. Arms Limitations: 1972 - SALT I treaties signed in Moscow • E. Improved Relations w/ China: 1972 - visit to China “journey for peace”
Nixon & Foreign Affairs (cont’d) • F. Congress & Foreign Affairs: • (1) Cambodian (Khmer) Bombing Cutoff: despite truce w/ Vietnam; war in Cambodia continues; Congress w/holds funds; Nixon suspends bombing (Aug. ‘73) • (2) War-Powers Resolution of 1973: • JFK; LBJ; Nixon war w/out declaration (Congress) • War Powers limits President’s power