Plants By: Jasmine Parker and Alana Thomas
Introduction to plants • Kingdom: Plantae • Multicellular eukaryote • Photosynthesize • Plants need water, soil and sunlight to survive • The first fossil record appeared 440 million years ago
Bryophytes • A group of plants comprising of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. • Multicellular • They attach themselves to rocks or bark and photosynthesize to get nutrients • Method of reproduction is sexual.
Seedless Vascular Plants • A plant that doesn’t produce seeds • Ex: fern, horsetails, club mosses, quillworts, spike mosses • Structure consists of xylem and phloem. Fern Horsetails
Seed Bearing Plants • A seed plant is a plant that reproduces by means of seeds not spores. • Adaptive importance: easily dispersed and the seeds can survive without water. • They inhale carbon and modifies the process of nutrition. • Some use their roots for asexual reproduction but some use sexual reproduction.
Types of seed plants • Gymnosperm • A plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary of fruit • Example: conifers, ginkgo • Angiosperm • A plant that has flowers and produce seeds enclosed within a carpel • Example: shrubs, grass, most trees • Monocots • Single cotyledon, furrow or pore • Flower parts in three • Secondary growth absent • Dicots • Two cotyledon, pollen with three furrows or pores • Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 • Secondary growth is often present
Plant Responses • Phototropism • Directional growth in which the direction of growths is determined by the direction of the light source • Geotropism/ Gravitropism • The growth of a living organism in response to gravity • Thigmotropism • Movement in which an organism moves or grows in response to touch or contact stimuli • Photoperiodism • The functional or behavioral response of an organism to changes of deration in daily, seasonal, or yearly cycles of light and darkness