SECTION 1 The Indian sub-continent
India Divided • After WWII Great Britain determined that India would have to be split into one Hindu nation (India) and one Muslim nation (Pakistan). • On August 15th 1945 both nations became independent from Great Britain.
Violence broke out between Hindus and Muslims and over a million were killed including Mohandas Gandhi. • After the violence both sides moved back across the designated borders.
The New India • New Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru combined capitalism with limited socialism to triple industrial production between 1950 and 1965. • He also led an alliance of countries that were neutral in Cold War (nonalignment)
His daughter Indira Gandhi replaced him when he died in 1964 but she faced many more problems including wide spread poverty.
An ethnic group in India called the Sikhs wanted to form their own independent nation. • After 450 Sikh rebels were killed by Gandhi’s military forces she would be assassinated by two of her own body guards who were Sikhs wanting revenge.
Leadership since Gandhi has continued to grow the middle class and still faces problems with poverty and overpopulation. • There are still tensions between Muslims and Hindus within the country.
The city of Kashmir is split between India and Pakistan where troops stand guard for both sides. • The danger of conflict between the nations grew in 1998 when both sides tested nuclear warheads. Pakistani Nuclear Power Plants Indian Nuclear Power Plants
Pakistan • The division between West Pakistan and East Pakistan led to East Pakistan declaring independence and becoming the nation of Bangladesh in 1971. • Both nations continue to fight the issues of rapid population growth, urbanization, and environmental problems.
The mountains of Northern Pakistan are also the known hiding place of Al Qaeda members.
Many different governments rule Pakistan, none achieve stability • Benazir Bhutto led Pakistan in 1980s and 1990s but is ousted. The military now rules. • Bhutto is assassinated in 2007.
Section 3 New Nations in africa
The Transition to Independence • In the decades following WWII most African nations gained their independence. • In 1960 seventeen nations became independent. • Another eleven followed in the next four years.
One notable independence leader in Africa were Kwame Nkrumah who freed the Gold Coast from the British and renamed in Ghana. • Jomo Kenyatta was able to free Kenyafrom British control.
The New Nations • Most of the new leaders of Africa were well educated and came from middle class backgrounds. • Some believed in Pan-Africanism which was the unity of all black Africans regardless of national boundaries. • The creation of the Organization of African Unity(OAU) came from Pan-Africanism. • In 2002 it became the African Union (AU)
Unfortunately many African nations still depended on their former colonizers for manufactured goods and trade partners. • Other problems plaguing African nations since independence include political corruption, political instability, misuse of resources, droughts, and population growth. • In more recent years the outbreak of the AIDSepidemic has added to the problems.
Since its formation the United Nations (UN) has attempted to solve problems in Africa in multiple ways. • Between 1957 and 1982 over 70 leaders of African nations were violently overthrown. • In Nigeriadifferent ethnic groups came together to resist colonial rule but when the country became independent civil war broke out.
In Rwandaand Burundithe Tutsiand Hutulived peacefully together for centuries until German and Belgian colonizers viewed the Tutsi as superior and promoted them. • After independence in these nations civil wars between the two groups have left over a million dead and millions homeless.
New Hopes • In recent years many democracieshave been able to replace dictatorshipsbut in some cases civil wars continue to plague these nations.
Society and Culture in Modern Africa • In Africa the battle between traditional ways and western culture continues • African cities resemble most cities around the world but still 75% of Africans live off of the land as their ancestors did. • City dwellers view rural areas as backwards while rural people view the cities as destructive and corrupt.
Section 4 CONFLICT IN THE MIDDLE EAST
The Middle East after World War II • Even after independence was gained many areas of the Middle East remained under colonial economic control. • Leaders in Iran, Iraq, and Libya placed foreign-owned oil companies under state control.
Nations in the Middle East have fought one another over land and water resources. • Rapid population growth and urbanization has led to high unemployment, pollution, and poverty.
The Question of Palestine • Before WWII Great Britain ruled Palestine under a United Nations mandate and limited Jewish migration. • After the Holocaustsympathy for Jews led to the split of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states.
Jews quickly established the nation of Israel. • Muslim Palestinians refused to acknowledge the right of this nation to exist and invasions were attempted but failed.
Nasser and Pan-Arabism • In the early 1950s Colonel Gamal Abdel Nassertook control of the Egyptian government and soon seized control of the Suez Canal from the French and British. • France, Britain and Israel launched an attack on Egypt which started the Suez War of 1956. • The United States and the Soviet Union both supported Nasserforcing the foreign forces to leave Israel.
The Arab-Israeli Dispute • In 1967 Nasser imposed a blockadeagainst Israeli shipping through the Gulf of Aqaba and declared he was ready to confront Israel. • Instead of waiting for an attack Israel launched an air attack on Egypt and other Arab neighbors. • During the Six Day War Israel tripled the size of its territory.
Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir refused to stop Jewish settlement of the new territories despite Arab demands to return the territories gained during the war. • Nasser died in 1970 and was replaced by Anwar el-Sadat who launched effective attacks on Israel during Yom Kippur in 1973
During the war the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed by Arab oil producing states. • They limited oil production and raised prices which caused shortagesin the United States and Europe.
Eager to solve the problem the US President Jimmy Carter invited the leaders of Israel (Begin) and Egypt (Sadat) to Camp David where they signed a peace treaty called the Camp David Accords. • Unfortunately this treaty failed.
The PLO and the Intifada • In 1964 the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed to represent the interests of Palestinians. • Its leader Yasir Arafat began to launch terrorist attacks in Israel. • In the 1980s a more militant group of Palestinians living in Israel called the Intifadabegan to launch terrorist attacks as well.
Peace talks in the early 1990s led to an agreement between Israel and the PLO called the Oslo Accords. • This created Palestinian autonomy in some areas in return for the PLO recognizingthe right for Israelto exist.
For organizing the peace talks Yasir Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prizein 1994. • Rabin would be assassinatedin 1995.
Revolution in Iran • The Autocratic, Western leaning leadership of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi made Iran a rich country through oil and its relationship with the United States. • Millions of Muslims disliked the way Iran was being run and an uprising would leave Islamic clergyman Ayatollah Khomeini in charge in 1979. • He created a restrictive state based on Islamic law. (View Argo intro)
Khomeini died in 1989 and was replaced by President Hashemi Rafsanjani who expanded personal freedoms. • A new wave of government repressionwould begin again in the mid-1990s.
Iraq’s Aggression • Iraq contains mainly ShiiteMuslims whereas Iran contains mostly SunniMuslims. • Because of their differences these neighbors have fought battles over land. • In 1980 Iraqi President Saddam Hussein launched an attack on Iran using poison gas on civilians and using children to clear mine fields. • A ceasefirewas reached in 1988.
In 1990 Iraqi troops invaded and occupied their neighbor to the south Kuwait, a small but oil rich nation. • During the Persian Gulf War America led International forces to drive the Iraqis out of Kuwait and destroyed much of their forces.
In 2003 concern over Iraqi attempts to gain nuclear weapons led to the toppling of Saddam Hussein’s regime by American forces. • Since then the struggle for power among different ethnic groups has led to several attacks on the government.
Kurds • A mostly Muslim ethnic group called the Kurdslive in the border areas of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria and the Caucasian republics sometimes called Kurdistan. • Their attempts to gain their own country have been crushed by Arab leaders. • During the Iraqi war with Iran Saddam Hussein used chemical weapons against Kurds in his own country killing thousands.
Islamic Fundamentalism • The movement back towards Islamic law in Arab nations is called Islamic Fundamentalism. • Some leaders like Muammar Qaddafi in Libya have used its appeal to strengthen their own power. • The movement has been rejected in some areas such as Turkey where secular law rules.
Islamic militantsseek to remove all Western influence from Arab nations. • This leads to changes in dress , social practices and the legal system. • Islamic militants use violence to achieve their goals including the assassinationof Anwar el-Sadat in 1981.
Terrorism • Terrorism has become a part of modern society as terrorist with various goals have used kidnapping, hijackings, and murder to call attention to their cause. • State-sponsored terrorism occurs when a government provides funding to militant groups. • This has been done by Iraq, Iran, Syria, Cuba, North Korea and many other nations.
Section 5 Central Asia struggles
Afghanistan and the Taliban • After WWII the King of Afghanistan formed a close relationship with the Soviet Union to gain economic support for his country. • When he was overthrown new leaders attempted to create a Soviet style communistgovernment while others wanted an Islamic State.
The Soviets launched a full scale invasionof the country to set up a communist government. • They occupiedAfghanistan for 10 years until anti-communist forces helped by the United States and Pakistan drove them out. • Among these forces was the Talibanwho seized control of the country.
Once in power the Taliban enforced strict Islamic law which many believed violated human rights. • They were also protecting Osama bin Ladenand his group of terrorist known as al-Qaeda. • In 1990 and in 2000 the United Nations Security Council demanded that he be turned over but the Taliban refused.
September 11, 2001 • On September 11, 2001 four groups of terrorist hijacked four commercial US jets. • Two were flown into the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.
A third was flown into the Pentagonbuilding in Washington, DC while the fourth crash landed in an isolated area of Pennsylvania. • The US led by President George W. Bush launched attacks that forced the Taliban out of power and into hiding in Afghanistan and Pakistan.