The Beginnings… • Household slaves had long been a part of world of Mediterranean Europe. • War captives would be sold to wealthy families and put to work as servants.
Sugar and Slavery • Columbus brought sugar cane and soon after sugar plantations were is full operation. • The indigenous population was devastated by war and disease so the colonists began importing slaves from Spain.
Native American Slave Labor Europeans tried to force Native Americans to work on their plantations. They ran into the following problems: 1. subject to fall ill from disease. 2. could easily run away. 3. could blend in with former tribes.
Indentured Servants *During the 1660’s the labor system in the colonies began to change as indenturedservants began to leave the plantations. *There was so much land in the Americas that it was easy for a servant to leave once they worked off their debt.
African Diaspora • The forced migration of African people to the Americas. • This is the largest forced migration in world history. • Prior to the 19th century, Africans outnumbered Europeans in the Americans 6 to 1. • It is the most brutal chapter in the history of the Americas.
Emerge It represents an ancestral figure emerging from the underground railroad. The tracks are connected to him because the experience is a part of who we are...part of our roots. The light in the upper right represents the north star...or direction towards freedom. http://jeromesartroom.com/main/source/index.html
ROOTS- By Alex Haley • Alex Haley's Roots is the monumental two-century drama of Kunta Kinte and the six generations who came after him. By tracing back his own roots, Haley tells the story of 39 million Americans of African descent. • The story of Roots begins in 1750. • It ends seven generations later at the Arkansas funeral of a black college professor. • Many African Americans can only trace their ancestry back to the Civil War. • Roots serves as a history for all African Americans.
The Mini-Series With 130 Million Viewers it is the most viewed television mini-series of all time. Starring: Levar Burton, Cicely Tyson, Louis Gossett Jr., O.J. Simpson, Ed Asner, Leslie Uggums, George Hamilton, Ben Vereen, Ralph Waite, John Amos
West Africa • The men and women whose labor made the tropical colonies of Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Hispaniola profitable came from West Africa.
Atlantic Slave Trades *With the decline of Native American Slave labor and increase in plantations the demand for African Slave Labor increased rapidly. SUPPLY----------------------------------DEMAND African Empire Colonial Building Plantations
It is estimated by scholars that between 10 and 12 million slaves were transported on slave ships during the four centuries of the slave trades. About 76% arrived between 1701-1810.
TRIANGULAR TRADE Goods Tobacco Slaves The Triangular Trade was between Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
The Middle Passage The trip from West Africa to the Americas, the “Middle Passage”, took an average of 62 days. The ships they traveled on were narrow and the typical space between decks was 4 to 5 feet. According to one case there was a ship where the space between decks was a mere 14 inches.
On the Coast • On the coast, European traders and African raiders assembled their captives. • Prisoners waited in dark dungeons or in open pens called barracoons.
Branding • Whipping and branding, borrowed from Roman practice via the Iberian-American colonies, appeared early and with vicious audacity.
Royal African Company A London slave-trade monopoly was given to the Royal African Company in 1672. Set up by the Stuart family and London merchants Led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother. Slaves were branded with RAC on their chests. Between 1672 and 1689 it transported around 90,000–100,000 slaves. The RAC Flag 25
Resistance • The unwilling voyagers offered plenty of resistance. • As long as the ships were still in sight of the African coast the hope remained alive and the danger of revolt was great.
Amistad: 1841 COURT RULING ON AMISTAD • Given they were illegally confined, the Africans were entitled to take what legal measures necessary to secure their freedom, including the use of force. • The Supreme Court affirmed this finding on March 9, 1841, and the Africans traveled home in 1842. The case influenced numerous succeeding laws. • The rebellion broke out when the schooner, traveling along the coast of Cuba, was taken over by a group of captives who had earlier been kidnapped in Africa and sold into slavery. • The Africans were later apprehended on the vessel near Long Island, New York, by the United States Navy and taken into custody
To lessen the possibility of collective resistance, traders split up families and ethnic groups. • Each person was inspected and branded with the name of the buyer on their back.
HUMAN CARGO The Europeans shipped liquor, cotton goods, weapons, and iron to African in exchange for slaves. They viewed the slaves as a commodity.
The captives were brought above deck for exercise. They were forced to dance for the entertainment of the crew.
Conditions on the Ship • Crowded • Unsanitary • Insufficient water supply • Poor food • Epidemic diseases • Inadequate supplies • Foul smell
Daily Routine • Crew opened the hatch. • Cargo brought to the deck. • After the crew had their breakfast they would demand the captives to engage in a bizarre exercise called “dancing a slave”. • They would be sent below the decks for another night of horror.
According to sailors you could smell a slaver ship from 5 miles downwind. A slaver was a ship used to transport slaves.
FEARS Most did not understand why they were being taken. Many believed rumors that they were captured by cannibals. Slaves would sometimes seek freedom by trying to mutiny. Others would jump to their death by jumping overboard.
Thrown Overboard Illness and disease ran rampant on such ships. Captains would not make money for sick slaves, but they would be reimbursed for drownings...
Statistics • 60,000 slaves were brought to the Americas per year between 1741-1810. • Historians estimate 10 million were forced to travel to the Americas between 1451 and 1870. • Once they arrived they were sold on the auction block.
Three Cultures Collide Africa provided many of the earliest laborers for European settlement in the Americas. Africans possessed the skill and experience necessary to establish European-initiated agriculture, and used their cultural traditions, combined with those of Europe and Native America, to create a new American culture.
As the ship approached the shore the crew prepared the cargo for market. The toll of the Middle Passage was hard to disguise. Slaves would often times look sickly and weak.
Arrival in the Americas • To impress buyers, captains would sometimes parade the Africans off of the boat to the sound of an accordion and beat of drums. • Some cargoes were destined for one wealthy owner or to a certain merchant.
Others were destined to go to auction. Sales were made by auction or by scramble. Scramble was when all the slaves would be driven into a corral, and on cue buyers would rush in and grab who they wanted.
Naming Practices • In African communities the children were often named after the days of the week. • When Africans were sold at auction they would be named by the person who purchased them. • English or Anglo-Saxon names were used.
African Kingdoms Weaken • As the slave trades intensified the kingdoms of African began to weaken. • Europeans began to seize whoever they pleased including people from the kingdoms they were trading with. • Many of the kingdoms became like machines for supplying captives to European traders.
Slave Codes • A series of laws passed mainly in Southern colonies in the late 17th and early 18th centuries to defend the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them.
Ohio Slave Codes In 1804 the Ohio General Assembly enacted laws to regulate the lives of African-Americans in the state.