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Chapter Two

By James Joyce. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Chapter Two. Nathan Park, Natalie Evans, Kasey Pinter, Drew Karson , Brianna Hansen, Molly Naudi , Devon Whitlam, Tyler Ingel , Brooke Powers. Summary.

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Chapter Two

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  1. By James Joyce A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Chapter Two Nathan Park, Natalie Evans, Kasey Pinter, Drew Karson, Brianna Hansen, Molly Naudi, Devon Whitlam, Tyler Ingel, Brooke Powers

  2. Summary • Stephen starts the chapter at his family’s house near Dublin. He goes on walks with his Uncle Charles, and one day meets Mike Flynn, who tries to train Stephen to become a runner. This doesn’t go well, and Stephen decides to go to church with his uncle instead. • By talking to his uncle, Stephen hears, but does not comprehend, all sorts of political talk. He understands, however, that his father is having troubles. In order to escape his family’s issues, he reenacts The Count of Monte Cristo with his friend Aubrey Mills. • The Dedalus family moves to Dublin due to financial issues (ie. Stephen does not return to Clongowes). In the city, Stephen feels more free than he did before while he explores. However, he also feels bitter.

  3. More summary • Stephen starts to distance himself from his connections. He does make an attempt to flirt with a girl, E.C. • Stephen, now a teenager, is a student at Belvedere College, a Jesuit school. He is preparing for a performance in the play the school is putting on. Two boys, Wallis and Heron, tease Stephen for not smoking and also mention that they saw Mr. Dedalusarrive with a young girl. • Stephen recalls a dispute with Heron and two other students over the question of which English poet is the best. • Next, Stephen and his father head to the city of Cork for an auction. Stephen falls asleep and is then awakened by a nightmare. He prays, and then falls asleep again to the noises of the train.

  4. More summary • While visiting his dad’s school, Stephen has a vision of a mustached student carving the word “Foetus” into the lecture hall years ago. Mr. Dedalus tells Stephen that he should always socialize with gentlemen. Stephen feels shame and distance, but he grounds himself by saying his own name and identity. They go to a bar, but Stephen is ashamed by his drunk father. Stephen feels distant, so he thinks about a poem about the lonely moon. • Stephen later has his family come to a nice dinner. He gives them money in hopes of unifying his family, but it does not work and he simply spends his cash. He then has sex with a prostitute.

  5. Comparison to chapter oneMaturity • In the first two chapters of, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, James Joyce uses Stephen Deadlus’ approach to love to describe his maturation. In chapter one, Stephen is at the level of maturity where he simply has a “crush” on girl named Eileen. This is evident in the narrator’s physical description of her. “[She] had long white hands. One evening when playing [tag] she had put her hands over his eyes: long and white and thin and cold and soft.” (31) In this chapter, Stephen is just a young child trying to understand the world. Thus, this chapter is full of simple, physical descriptions. It is not until chapter two where he tries to not only understand the world but understand his place in it and how it affects him. He simply addresses the beautiful physical features of Eileen but fails to do anything about it or understand the meaning of why she stood out to him

  6. Comparison to chapter oneMaturity • In chapter two, the reader notices that Stephen has progressively matured. Stephen is thinking more critically about his ideas and his position in the world. Just like the first chapter, his maturation is evident in his relationship with the new girl he likes. While in the first chapter his opinion of the girl was simply observant, this opinion has evolved into the questioning of his feelings for the girl he likes and how he should react to it. Instead of physically describing the girl he likes, he vividly describes her actions and his reactions towards them. “His heart danced upon her movements like a cork upon a tide.” (60) His is beginning to become more emotionally and physically involved with his feelings towards women.

  7. Comparison to chapter oneMaturity • He remembers how the girl from Chapter 1, Eileen, wanted him to grab her hand and chase her. Now with the new girl, he think considers if he should hold and kiss the new girl he likes. While he has progressed from an observant little boy noticing the beauty of a young girl to contemplating his actions towards his feelings, he still has not reached the level of maturity to do anything about it. Stephen notes how he could’ve easily caught hold of the girl he liked when she came to his step and kissed her, but instead he did neither and ended up alone, destroying his only possible chance to see her again.

  8. Faith in God and Catholicism • Stephen was raised in a Catholic family, and begins life following his religion closely. As he grows older, he realizes that Catholicism is stopping him from living a full life and doing what he wants. He begins to sin and is fully aware of what he is doing and how it violates his religion. He seems to be testing his boundaries, hoping to become more independent. Stephen is not sure he wants to fit into their mold of ‘the perfect being’. • Stephen is respectful of religion, but still has some doubts at this point. He goes through the motions and does what he’s supposed to, but he still feels like he is doing it because of outside pressure from his family, which bothers him. It is also mentioned that it is ‘out of his reach’, meaning that Stephen may not have a full grasp of what Catholicism really means to him. • “I never liked the idea of sending him (Stephen) to the Christian brothers myself, said Mrs. Dedalus. Christian brothers be damned! Said Mr. Dedalus. Is it with Paddy Stink and Mickey Mud? No, let him stick to the Jesuits in God’s name since he began with them. They’ll be of service to him in after years. Those are the fellows that can get you a position”(81).

  9. Faith in God and Catholicism • Stephen feels pressured to rebel against religion since his parents often argue about it. Stephen does find some safety and predictability in religion. He describes “the smiling face of a priest”(82), indicating that Catholicism feels like home to him. Although he wants to rebel against it, he has grown up with religion all through his childhood. He is still praying, but although he has faith in it, the direction has been lost. • “…He prayed that the day might come quickly. His prayer, addressed neither to God nor saint, began with a shiver, as the chilly morning breeze crept…”(96). • Stephen writes an essay in school, and is called out by the teacher because it has heresy in it. He is also teased by some boys for liking a poet who was claimed to be a heretic. At this point, Stephen sees that Catholicism is restraining him. The bullies try forcing him to ‘admit’ that he likes this poet, Byron. This situation is similar to a confession of sin in a church, and Stephen takes another step back from his stronghold on his faith. Stephen states later that voices preaching being a good Catholic have become “hollow-sounding in his ears”(92). • Stephen once again feels the restraint religion is putting on him. He feels closed in, unable to dream as he wishes. He is being strangled.

  10. Faith in God and Catholicism • Stephen’s run in with the prostitute as a teenager is a strong signal that he is losing faith, and doesn’t care what others think of him. “He cared little that he was in mortal sin, that his life had grown to be a tissue of subterfuge and falsehood. Beside the savage desire within him to realize the enormities which he brooded on nothing was sacred”(107). • “He wanted to sin with another of his kind, to force another being to sin with him and to exult with her in sin… It broke from him like a wail of despair from a hell of sufferers and died in a wail of furious entreaty…”(108). • Stephen is doing anything he can to free himself from barriers. He is completely aware with his sin, yet is glad he he is doing it.

  11. Desire to escape • Throughout The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and in chapter 2 especially, there is an overriding theme of paralysis surrounding all of the characters. Some of the characters give in to this theme and fall prey to the past and tradition, such as Mr. Daedalus, when he spends full days talking to Stephen about how he “enjoyed himself” as “a young fellow”. Simply, he only relives his glory days and never experiences anything fuller in life past that. Stephen however, tries to break free of this mundane cycle that repeats itself generation after generation and makes numerous suggestions about how he wishes he could escape his current life and start a fresh, exciting new one somewhere else. • For example, “A vague dissatisfaction grew up within him as he looked on the quays and on the river and on the lowering skies and yet he continued to wander up and down day after day as if he really sought someone that eluded him.” (page 76).

  12. Desire to escape • “But his brain had then refused to grapple with the theme and, desisting, he had covered the page with the names and addresses of certain of his classmates: Roderick Kickham, John Lawton, Anthony MacSwiney, Simon Moonan.” • So he is like trying to escape his boredom of his normal monotonous life and his studies by imagining all his homies. His desire to adventure with his friends and see the world is seen by his subconscious action of writing their names on a page. • “The light spread upwards from the glass roof making the theatre seem a festive ark, anchored among the hulks of houses, her frail cables of lanterns looping her to her moorings… His unrest issued from him like a wave of sound: and on the tide of flowing music the ark was journeying, trailing her cables of lanterns in her wake.” (page 84). • He imagines an ark, a boat that is literally made to rescue people and take them somewhere else. He wants it to save him from the intransient life he is stuck in so badly that his “unrest” actually almost makes the theatre move.

  13. References to Literature • In chapter two of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Joyce alludes to many works of literature. These allusions serve the purpose of submerging the reader into Irish culture and displaying the religious, and educational value of Irish traditions. • E-C-: EC are the initials of Stephens love interest, Emma Cleary, as seen in the first draft of the novel Stephen Hero. Joyce includes this allusion to his previous work to show the progression from the first draft to the final draft of his novel. • Irish Songs: Many allusions to Irish folk songs are made to enhance the sense of Irish culture within the novel. Joyce expects his audience to be familiar with such works in order to understand the world Stephen is a part of. Therefore, by including allusions to popular Irish music, he hopes the audience will further be able to connect to the novel. • Ex: Uncle Charles hums his favorite songs, “O, twine me a bower or Blue eyes and golden hair or the Groves of Blarney.”

  14. References to Literature • Confiteor: An allusion the Catholic Prayer “Confiteor” is used to make specific connections to the role religion holds in everyday life in Ireland.. Confiteor is a prayer for the remission of sins that Stephen begins to recite after feeling guilty. By including the specific prayer used, the reader can identify how key religion is in Stephen’s upbringing. • Ex: “Stephen felt the skin tingle and glow slightly and almost painlessly; and, bowing submissively, as if to meet his companion’s jesting mood, began to recite the Confiteor.” • Frederick Marryat: Joyce alludes to “Captain Marryat” the famous author of, The Children of the New Forest, to show how literarily well rounded the young boys are. When the boys get in an argument about who the best author is, it shows how well educated they all are at such a young age. The audience can conclude that literature and education are very cherished in Irish culture.

  15. References to Literature • Lord Tennyson: References to the famous poet Lord Tennyson are made to elaborate on the significance of literature in Ireland. Even the very young are highly familiar with the noble authors and poets from their country which reveals not only that Ireland has a strong sense of Nationalism, but also a love for literature. • Ex: “ And who is the best poet, Heron? Lord Tennyson of course…” • Gaelic League: An allusion to a work of the Gaelic league is made to inform the audience on the Irish desire to revive their language and culture. Nationalism and country pride was very important to the Irish as they often felt undermined and victimized from the British. By referencing the work of the Gaelic League, Joyce discreetly includes historical background on Ireland. • Dilectus: Joyce references Dilectus, a popular Latin phrasebook, to inform the audience the significance of Latin in their culture. Knowing and using Latin was an important part of Irish culture and therefore was taught to the students. • Ex: “One of them, to put his Latin to the roof, had made him translate short passages from Dilectus.”

  16. Relationship with family and community • Stephen’s family acts as a standard that he hopes to exceed. Stephen becomes progressively more disillusioned by his family as the chapter unfolds. On the first page of the chapter, we learn about Stephen’s relationship with Uncle Charles. His uncle is the closest relative to him, and is the only one that Stephen enjoys spending time with. Stephen admires his uncle’s religious devotion even though he does not share the same beliefs. As his uncle ages past the point of being able to go out on his own, Stephen becomes more distant from his family and begins to develop his own personal philosophy based on his observations and reading.

  17. Relationship with family and community • Stephen’s father’s irresponsibility and unpleasantness is emphasized in this chapter. Stephen does not seem to respect his father at all, especially after the family’s financial trouble. His father only speaks of superfluous things, and Stephen is often anxious to get away from this father’s presence. It is clear that Mr. Dedalus does not see the reality of his relationship with his son. He states, “I don’t believe a son should be afraid of his father. No, I treat you as your grandfather treated me when I was a young chap. We were more like brothers than father and son.” Stephen does not share this sentiment, and wants to stray as far away as possible from the life his father leads.

  18. Relationship with family and community • In general, Stephen does not have relationships with people he wishes to emulate. His observations, rather than interactions, shape the kind of person he hopes to become. He is critical of all the people he comes into contact with and must turn to literature to find his role model. By the end of the chapter, Stephen has disassociated himself with the community and finally acts on his fantasies of sex.

  19. Love and Sex… • Stephen is eager to enter into the adult world and he believes having sex will allow him to do this. He comes to this conclusion after he reads The Count of Monte Cristo and starts to imagine himself with Mercedes, a woman from the novel. “He returned to Mercedes and, as he brooded upon her image, a strange unrest crept into his blood. Sometimes a fever gathered within him and led him to rove alone in the evening along the quiet avenue.” (44) Stephen begin to lust after women which causes him to wander the streets at night. One night a prostitute approaches him and they have sex. “In her arms he felt like he had suddenly become strong and fearless and sure of himself.” (71) The chapter ends with Stephen feeling like he has entered into the adult world and has become a man who is sure of himself now that he has had sex.

  20. Love and Sex… • By reading novels Stephan’s perspective of love is unrealistic he feels as if love does not exist. “All the description of fierce love and hatred which he had met in books had seemed to him therefore unreal.” (57) He is comparing the idealistic or manipulated word of books to the real world. This will only cause him to be disappointed because the real world can never measure up to what is read about in books.

  21. The Count of Monte CristoPlot • The book is about a man named Edmond Dantès who is very successful and was to be married soon. However, three of his friends, jealous of him, wrote a letter falsely claiming him of treason. Monsieur de Villefort, the public prosecutor, would have let him go but in fear of jeopardizing his own career advances sentenced Edmond to a life in prison. While in prison Edmond met AbbéFaria who taught him many subjects and languages. He then gave Edmond his hidden fortune if he should escape.

  22. The Count of Monte CristoPlot • Edmond escaped and found the Fortune on the Island of Monte Cristo. He then learned of the plot that resulted in his imprisonment and disappeared for ten years finding facts to bring down his enemies. After the ten years, he appeared in Rome as the Count of Monte Cristo and used his money and information to bring down all those who were involved in the plot that blamed him for treason. In the end he found happiness by marrying a woman named Haydée, who he saved from slavery.

  23. The Count of Monte CristoCharacters • Edmond Dantès or Monte Cristo- Main Character of the book. He was intelligent, loving, and honest butturnedbitter and vengeful after being framed fortreason. He took on the different aliases of MonteCristo, Lord Wilmore, Abbé Busoni, and Sinbad the sailor to exact his revenge. • Caderousse- lazy, drunk that was jealous of Edmond. He was present when the plan to incriminate Edmond was hatched.

  24. The Count of Monte CristoCharacters • Mercédès- she was Edmond’s beautiful fiancée. However, while Edmond was in prison, she married Fernando Mondego. She never stopped loving Edmond and is both punished and rewarded by him. • AbbéFaria- He was a priest and brilliant thinker that taught Edmond history, science, art and many languages while in prison. He gave Edmond his huge secret fortune. • FernandMondego or Count of Morcerf- Helped Frame Edmond for treason and then married Mercédèswhile Edmond was in prison.

  25. The Count of Monte CristoCharacters • Louis Dantès- Edmond’s Father. He starved himself because Edmond went to prison. He is one of the main reasons Edmond seeks vengeance. • Monsieur Morrel- Ship owner who was Edmond’s boss. Tries everything to free Edmond and to save Edmond’s Father. • Gerard De Villefort- He is the judge that sentences Edmond to a life in prison. • Baron Danglars- He hatches plan to frame Edmond. He was greedy and envious and in the end loses everything when Edmond exacts revenge.

  26. Cardinal Newman • He was originally a Oxford academic and priest in the Church of England, but became a influential leader in the Oxford Movement. • In 1845, he left the Church of England and joined the Roman Catholic church where he eventually was granted the rank of cardinal by Pope Leo XIII. • He was a huge help in the founding of the catholic university of Ireland which became University College, Dublin. • He was beatified in 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI. His consociation is pending on the documentation of miracles.

  27. Cardinal Newman • He is also well known for his work, Apologia, was a memoir of his spiritual journey and is considered by critics as one of the great autobiographies of its time. • Referred by James Joyce as “the greatest of English prose writers.”

  28. Lord Byron • Lord Byron was an English poet and was a leading writer in the Romantic movement of 1800-1850. He lived a scandalous life that involved numerous affairs. He, like Alfred Tennyson, attended Trinity College in Cambridge. Some of his well known works include Don Juan, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, and “She Walks into Beauty.” Later in his life, he fought against the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence. While in Greece, he contracted a fever and died there at age 36.

  29. Alfred Lord Tennyson • Alfred Lord Tennyson was the Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland from 1850 until his death during Queen Victoria’s reign. At an early age, Tennyson began to write poetry in the style of Lord Byron. After an unhappy childhood, he studied at Trinity College and, while there, joined a literary club called “The Apostles.” He also published his first works titled Poems by Two Brothers while attending Trinity. His major achievements as a poet include “In Memoriam” about the sudden loss of his closest friend, “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” and “The Lady of Shallot.” Tennyson also wrote several plays before his death in 1892

  30. The Confiteor • In the novel, Stephen is forced to give his opinion on who he thinks the greatest poet is. While all the other boys agree on Alfred Lord Tennyson, Stephen believes Lord Byron to be the greatest. He is teased for this because Byron writes for “the uneducated.” We are introduced here to Joyce’s belief of separation of religious and political affairs from art after Heron describes Byron to be “a heretic and immoral.” Stephen argues that he doesn’t care and that this doesn’t change Byron’s writing in his eyes. The Confiteor, in the Catholic Church, is a prayer said at the beginning of mass. This translates to “I confess” in Latin and is a ritual repentance of sin. In Portrait of The Artist as a Young Man, Stephen begins to recite this as Heron and Wallis try and force him into admitting that he was with a girl they had seen at the church. This also causes him to remember the time that his teacher accused him of heresy in an essay and, later, Heron tracked him down and he and his gang began to bother him about who he thought the greatest writer was.

  31. Quiz • What reoccurring theme is strongly carried over from chapter one? How so? • How does Stephen feel about Catholicism and God? What situations do his beliefs land him in? • How does Stephen struggle with Joyce’s idea of paralysis? • Describe Stephen’s relationships. Who are two examples of a relationship Stephen has? • How does Stephen contrast love and sex? How does he relate these two ideas to the adult world?

  32. Quiz: Answers • Maturity—A crush becomes more beautiful. He starts thinking more critically about the world (and girls). • He is conflicted about Catholicism and God. While he respects it, and those who practice, he believes that he is being repressed by religion. • Stephen wants to break free of his boring life, and through reading he loosens his imagination. However, sometimes he freezes and cannot act, like when he wanted to kiss the girl he liked. • Stephen does not have strong relationships. His father clearly feels that they do not connect and his uncle has become incoherent, so their relationship has been severed. • Sex is something that Stephen used to join the “adult world.” To him, love is something that does not exist.

  33. I was the last person to send in my research, but it doesn’t matter because I’m perfect. THE END

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