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California Missions

California Missions

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California Missions

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  1. California Missions Background (22 slides) 21 Missions (22 slides)

  2. California Missions: Background For God, for Glory, for Gold! An Age of Exploration began in the 1400s when Portuguese and Spanish began making safer, faster ships that traveled further. Men like Christopher Columbus, Vasco Da Gama, Ferdinand Magellan went to places no Europeans had gone before. Holland England  Germany France Italy Portugal Spain

  3. California Missions: Background For God, for Glory, for Gold! As they explored and mapped new areas of the world, they set up colonies to expand their country’s empire, find resources, and spread the Catholic faith. Soon after, the English, French and Dutch joined in the competition. By the 1800s, Germany and Italy also got involved. Holland England  Germany France Italy Portugal Spain

  4. California Missions: Background Holland England  Germany France Italy Spain Portugal

  5. California Missions: Background Spainwas one of three powers to claim land in North America. Spain controlled the largest empire since Genghis Khan’s Mongol Empire in the 1200s. Beginning with Columbusin 1492, Spain dominated in the Americas. Spain

  6. California Missions: Background Hernan Cortes overthrew the powerful Aztecs in Central America and Francisco Pizarro took down the wealthy and powerful Incans of South America. The Spanish profited from sugar, tobacco and gold. The Spanish were mostly Catholic and set up missions in many of the areas they controlled. Spain

  7. California Missions: Background Like Christopher Columbus, later Spanish explorers traveled across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas. Spanish conquistadors and missionaries explored Central America, eventually making their way up to present-day California. North America California

  8. California Missions: Background The Colonies rebel against England, establishing the United States (1776) Spain sends Franciscan monks to settle in Alta California (1768) 13 Colonies The 21st and final California mission in built (1823) Alta (Upper) California Spain begins to establish settlements in Baja California (1697) Spain claims Alta and Baja California as part of New Spain (1542) Cortes conquers the Aztecs, claiming it for Spain (1521) Baja (Lower) California New Spain (present-day Mexico)

  9. California Missions: Background There were many significant events happening across the continent of North America at the same time. The first Spanish Missions in California had already been built when, three thousand miles away, the Thirteen Colonies rebelled against England, wrote the Declaration of Independence and won the Revolutionary War.

  10. California Missions: Background By the time the twenty-first mission was completed in California, the United States was already operating under the leadership of its fifth president. France had also claimed a massive section of land in the middle of the continent called the Louisiana Territory.

  11. California Missions: Background Since the Middle Ages, most Europeans were Christian. After the Protestant Reformation in the 1500s, Europe was divided as some regions were Protestant Christians and others remained Catholic. The Spanish missionaries who traveled to California were Franciscan monks, which is part of the Catholic Church, which is a type of Christian church. Christian Catholic Franciscan

  12. California Missions: Background The wheel During the Columbian Exchange, these items were brought from the New World (North & South America) to the Old World (Europe) During the Columbian Exchange, these items were brought from the Old World (Europe) to the New World (North & South America) bananas tomatoes horses corn Old World (Europe) chocolate New World (Americas) pigs potatoes Citrus fruit New World (Americas) wheat peanuts beans tobacco coffee cows

  13. California Missions: Background During the Columbian Exchange, these items were brought from the New World (North & South America) to the Old World (Europe) During the Columbian Exchange, these items were brought from the Old World (Europe) to the New World (North & South America) Old World (Europe) New World (Americas) New World (Americas)

  14. California Missions: Background The Columbian exchange refers to the sharing of products, ideas from the Old World (Europe) to the New World (North and South America). The this exchange of goods meant that Spanish missionaries in California shared new ideas with the native tribes.

  15. California Missions: Background The Spanish Missions in California were a series of 21 structures that served as both military outposts and religious outreach centers. The purpose of the missions was to spread the Christian faith to the native populations.

  16. California Missions: Background Although native populations had lived in the region for thousands of years, the Spanish were the first Europeans to explore California when Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo traveled up to the top of Baja-California near present-day San Diego.

  17. California Missions: Background Most of the California missions were named after a Catholic saint. A saint is simply someone who the Catholic Church has declared to be an extraordinary individual.

  18. California Missions: Background Some missions were named in other ways, like Mission San Carlos, which was named after the Spanish King Carlos III. Some of the names of these missions were adopted by the cities that developed around them.

  19. California Missions: Background El Camino Real is the name for the 600-mile California mission trail connecting the 21 missions, 4 presidios (military forts) and several pueblos (native community centers) in Alta California.

  20. California Missions: Background This trail is also known as the King’s Highway or the Calle Real. The trail goes from the first mission in San Diego (in the south) to the twenty-first and final mission in Sonoma (in the north). Many earthquakes have effected the California missions, but the 1812 earthquakes centered near Santa Barbara caused the most destruction, effecting all the missions, destroying several.

  21. California Missions: Background The legacy of the Spanish Missions in California is mixed. Some historians point out the positives that the Spanish brought to California like new products, serving and teaching natives how to read, to farm and to ranch. The Spanish not only introduced Christianity, but also things like new fruits and vegetables, cows, pigs and horses.

  22. California Missions: Background Other historians point out the negatives that the Spanish brought to California like smallpox and other diseases that wiped out much of the population in the native tribes. Some of the Spanish were known to have harsh treatment toward native populations as well.

  23. California Missions: Background 1) Mission San Diego de Alcalá- 1769 2) Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo - 1770 3) Mission San Antonio de Padua - 1771 4) Mission San Gabriel - 1771 5) Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa- 1772 6) Mission San Francisco de Asís - 1776 7) Mission San Juan Capistrano - 1776 8) Mission Santa Clara de Asís- 1777 9) Mission San Buenaventura - 1782 10) Mission Santa Barbara - 1786 11) Mission La Purísima Concepción - 1787 12) Mission Santa Cruz - 1791 13) Mission NuestraSeñora de la Soledad - 1791 14) Mission San José - 1797 15) Mission San Juan Bautista - 1797 16) Mission San Miguel Arcángel- 1797 17) Mission San Fernando Rey de España- 1797 18) Mission San Luis Rey de Francia- 1798 19) Mission Santa Inés - 1804 20) Mission San Rafael Arcángel- 1817 21) Mission San Francisco Solano - 1823

  24. California Missions: 21 Missions Students, fill this out as we go through the next 21 slides…

  25. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Diego de Alcalá Year founded: 1769 Order (by date): 1 Nearby native tribe(s): Kumeyaay Fact #1: Mission San Diego was the first mission built in Alta California Fact #2: When a 1775 native revolt led to the killing of Friar Jayme, he became the first Christian Martyr in California Fact #3: The 1775 native revolt was the first of 12 such revolts against Spanish Missions in California

  26. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo Year founded: 1770 Order (by date): 2 Nearby native tribe(s): Esselen and Ohlone Fact #1: It was destroyed in the mid-1800s and restored in 1884 Fact #2: The early missionaries relied on bear meat to survive Fact #3: Pope John Paul II visited the mission in 1987

  27. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Antonio de Padua Year founded: 1771 Order (by date): 3 Nearby native tribe(s): Salinan Fact #1: It was the first building to use tile roofing in California Fact #2: It was the site of the first Christian marriage in California Fact #3: The mission operates as a functional Catholic Church today

  28. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Gabriel Year founded: 1771 Order (by date): 4 Nearby native tribe(s): Tongva Fact #1: Father Cruzado, from Cordoba, Spain, designed the mission architecture in Moorish style Fact #2: Is the only mission to have this style of narrow windows Fact #3: An earthquake in 1812 caused parts of the bell tower to collapse

  29. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: San Luis Obispo de Tolosa Year founded: 1772 Order (by date): 5 Nearby native tribe(s): Chumash Fact #1: The city of San Luis Obispo is named after the mission Fact #2: White Californians used the mission as a military base against Mexico in the Mexican-American War Fact #3: It is the only ‘L’ shaped mission church among the 21 California missions

  30. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: San Francisco de Asís Year founded: 1776 Order (by date): 6 Nearby native tribe(s): Ohlone Fact #1: It is the oldest surviving structure in San Francisco Fact #2: The 1906 earthquake destroyed the church next to the mission, but the mission remained Fact #3: A full-length statue of Father Junipero Serra (founder of several missions) is located at this mission

  31. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Juan Capistrano Year founded: 1776 Order (by date): 7 Nearby native tribe(s): Juaneño Fact #1: This mission has the oldest structure still in regular use (the chapel building constructed in 1782) Fact #2: Is well-known for the migrating swallows that come every summer from regions of Argentina Fact #3: Is home to the largest pepper tree in the United States

  32. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission Santa Clara de Asís Year founded: 1777 Order (by date): 8 Nearby native tribe(s): Ohlone, Miwok Costanoan, Tamyen, Yokuts, Costeño Fact #1: Both the city and the county of Santa Clara are named after this mission Fact #2: Was the home of the first college in California in 1828 Fact #3: Serves as a chapel for Santa Clara University to this day

  33. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Buenaventura Year founded: 1782 Order (by date): 9 Nearby native tribe(s): Chumash, Bentureño Fact #1: The original bells for this mission were borrowed from Mission Santa Barbara, but never returned Fact #2: The Chumash helped build aqueducts around the Mission Fact #3: Because of the Orchards, gardens and water flow, English navigator George Vancouver called it the finest mission he had ever seen

  34. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission Santa Barbara Year founded: 1786 Order (by date): 10 Nearby native tribe(s): Chumash, Barbareño, Canaliño Fact #1: Named after Saint Barbara, a 3rd century Turk beheaded by her father for becoming a Christian Fact #2: Successfully scared off invading French sailors in 1818 Fact #3: Abe Lincoln gave it back to the Catholic Church less than a month before his death in 1865

  35. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: La Purísima Concepción Year founded: 1787 Order (by date): 11 Nearby native tribe(s): Chumash, Purisimeño Fact #1: One of only two missions that is not currently controlled by the Catholic Church Fact #2: currently a State Park Fact #3: an 1812 earthquake destroyed the original complex, but it is the only complete mission complex still in existence

  36. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission Santa Cruz Year founded: 1791 Order (by date): 12 Nearby native tribe(s): Yokuts, Ohlone, Awaswas Fact #1: The mission complex was made up of 32 different buildings Fact #2: Nicknamed the “hard-luck mission” because of multiple earthquakes causing damage Fact #3: Was the site of the first autopsy in California

  37. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: NuestraSeñora de la Soledad Year founded: 1791 Order (by date): 13 Nearby native tribe(s): Chalon, Esselen, Yokuts, Costeño Fact #1: A Spanish Governor, Jose Joaquin de Arrillaga, was buried at the mission in 1814 Fact #2: Was in ruins from 1835-1954 Fact #3: A restoration project took place from 1954-1955

  38. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San José Year founded: 1797 Order (by date): 14 Nearby native tribe(s): Miwok, Patwin, Tamyen, Yokuts Fact #1: cities of Livermore, Peralta and Alviso were named after pioneer families connected to the mission Fact #2: original complex consisted of over 100 adobe buildings Fact #3: The 1985 restoration is said to be a near-perfect replica of the original mission

  39. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Juan Bautista Year founded: 1797 Order (by date): 15 Nearby native tribe(s): Mutsun, Yokuts, Costeño Fact #1: It is the largest of all 21 missions in California Fact #2: It sits right on the San Andreas fault and has been hit by numerous earthquakes Fact #3: It was featured in Alfred Hitchcock’s film Vertigo in 1958

  40. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Miguel Arcángel Year founded: 1797 Order (by date): 16 Nearby native tribe(s): Salinan Fact #1: the 2003 Sam Simeon Earthquake closed the mission for 6 years of repair work Fact #2: The inside of the mission features many murals by Esteban Munras Fact #3: The mission was once sold for $600 in 1846

  41. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: San Fernando Rey de España Year founded: 1797 Order (by date): 17 Nearby native tribe(s): Tataviam, Tongva Fact #1: a 100-pound mission bell was excavated in a nearby orange grove in 1920 Fact #2: Many scenes from the 1985 film Pee-wee’s Big Adventure were filmed inside the mission Fact #3: The mission name was given to both the city of San Fernando as well as the San Fernando Valley

  42. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: San Luis Rey de Francia Year founded: 1798 Order (by date): 18 Nearby native tribe(s): Kumeyaay, Quechnajuichom Fact #1: The compound once served almost 1 million acres of land Fact #2: The mission was named after King Louis IX of France Fact #3: The first Peruvian pepper tree in California was planted at this mission in 1830, later to be named the California Pepper Tree

  43. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission Santa Inés Year founded: 1804 Order (by date): 19 Nearby native tribe(s): Chumash Fact #1: its nickname is “hidden gem of the missions” Fact #2: In 1824, a young soldier beat a Chumash Indian to death, sparking the Chumash Revolut of 1824 Fact #3: The 1812 earthquake destroyed much of this mission

  44. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Rafael Arcángel Year founded: 1817 Order (by date): 20 Nearby native tribe(s): Miwok Fact #1: The mission was used as the headquarters of the Bear Flag Revolt during the Mexican-American War Fact #2: Known as the ‘most obliterated mission’ since the only original part of the mission is a single pear tree Fact #3: It was the first ‘hospital’ in California

  45. California Missions: 21 Missions Name: Mission San Francisco Solano Year founded: 1823 Order (by date): 21 Nearby native tribe(s): Wiwok Fact #1: Was the final mission built in California Fact #2: The Spanish wanted to monitor Russian activities in the north, using this mission as headquarters Fact #3: Was well-known for growing varieties of grapes on the site