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The World War II Era

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The World War II Era

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  1. The World War II Era

  2. Worldwide Post – WWI Issues • Unsuccessfulness of Treaty of Versailles • Caused Anger and Resentment Throughout the World • Weimer Republic – Blame for the War • Soviet Union – Carved up Russian Empire • Did Not Secure a “Just and Secure Peace” • Worldwide Depression • The Entire World Was Dealing With the Depression – Not Just the United States • London Conference • U.S. Leaves & Destroys Success of Conference • “Every Country for Itself”

  3. The Development of Nationalism and Dictatorship Worldwide Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin Italy – Benito Mussolini Germany – Adolf Hitler Japan – Militarists (Hideki Tojo)

  4. The Soviet Union • Joseph Stalin (man of steel) Took Over After Vladimir Lenin Died in 1924 • Made ‘Ideal’ Communist State • Economic Goals: • Agricultural Growth • Industrial Growth • Developed ‘Collectives’ • Government Owned Farms • Developed a Totalitarian Government • Government Has Complete Control Over Citizens • Purged and Eliminated Any Possible Threats and Opponents to Power Joseph Stalin

  5. The Rise of Fascism in Italy • Italian Economic Problems • Inflation, Unemployment, Strikes • Middle and Upper Class Demanded Leader to ‘Save’ Country From Economic Ruin and Communism • Mussolini Created the Fascist Party in 1921 • Interests of the State Above the Interests of the Individuals • Mussolini Given Power By Italian King in 1922 • Known as ‘Il Duce’ (the leader) • Crushed All Opponents and Created a Totalitarian State Benito Mussolini

  6. Hitler and Nazi Germany • Hitler Was a Struggling and Angry WWI Veteran in Weimar Republic • Joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI) in 1919 • Eventually Named ‘Fuhrer’ of Party in 1921 • Wrote Mein Kampf While in Jail • Established Plan of Action for NAZI Party • Uniting of All German Speaking People • Racial ‘Purification’ in Germany • National Expansion (Lebensraum) • Depression Eventually Allowed NAZI Party to Become Strongest in Germany & Hitler Was Appointed Chancellor & Dismantled Democratic Principles of Weimar Republic • Developed the Third Reich Adolf Hitler

  7. Japanese Militaristic Beliefs and Movements • Reasons Japanese Militaristic Leaders Believed Expansion Was Necessary • Western Aspirations • Security Reasons • Manifest Destiny • Free Asian Nations of Western Domination • International Provocation • Five Power Treaty, Japanese Exclusion • Economics • Invaded and Took Control of Manchuria in 1931 • League of Nations Did Nothing Hideki Tojo

  8. The Beginning of Aggression Worldwide

  9. German Aggression • Hitler Pulled Germany Out of the League of Nations in 1933 • By 1935 Hitler Began Military Buildup – Complete Violation of Treaty of Versailles • Sent Military Troops to the Rhineland • Demilitarized Zone According to Treaty of Versailles • Owned by France But Controlled by Germany Before WWI

  10. Italian Aggression • Mussolini’s Goal – Build ‘His’ New Roman Empire • First Focus: Ethiopia • Invaded Ethiopia w/ Thousands of Soldiers in 1935 & Conquered by 1936 • League of Nations Response: • Economic Boycott (Slap on the Wrist) [To the League of Nations] “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow” Ousted Ethiopian Emperor: Haile Selassie

  11. The Test Ground for Fascism • Spanish Civil War Began in 1936 • Led by Francisco Franco and Other Spanish Army Officers • Western Democracies Remained Neutral But Elected Spanish Government Received Limited Help From Other Volunteers • Franco Received Aid From Hitler and Mussolini • Troops, Tanks, Fighter Planes • Franco is Victorious & Another Fascist Leader in Europe Present Spanish Fascist Leader Francisco Franco

  12. American Response to Worldwide Aggression

  13. Isolationism • Americans Clung to Isolationism Just Like in WWI • Why: • Kellogg – Briand Pact • ‘Merchants of Death’ Rumors After WWI • Roosevelt Changing Foreign Policy • Beginning of Presidency: • Recognized Soviet Union • Good Neighbor Policy in Latin America • Reciprocal Trade Agreements (1934) • As Aggression Begins • Neutrality Acts • 1935 --Prohibited American Citizens From Selling Arms to Belligerents in International War • 1936 – Prohibited Trade in War Materials as Well as Loans to Belligerent Countries • 1937 – More Tightly Enforced Previous Acts and Included Nations in Civil War

  14. The Start of War In Europe

  15. The Beginning of Hitler’s Aggression • Nov. 1937 – Hitler Met w/ Officers & Explained That Germany Needed Land of Neighbors to Grow and Prosper • March 1938 – German Troops March Into Austria Unopposed • Many Austrians Were German Speaking People • Anschluss (Union) With Austria Was Complete • Germany Began to Move Troops to Take the Sudetenland (German Speaking Province of Czech.) • For: 1) Living Space 2) Natural Resources • Munich Conference • Germany’s Last Territorial Advance and Claim • Beginning of Appeasement Policy

  16. Rhineland Sudetenland

  17. The German Offensive Begins • Hitler Lied @ Munich Conference & Had Eyes on All of Czechoslovakia • “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist” – Hitler (March, 1939) • Poland Was Next on Hitler’s ‘Wish List’ • German Speaking People in Poland • Were Supposedly Mistreated by the Poles • Consequences of Attack on Poland • May Bring Soviet Union Into Conflict • Declaration of War by France and Great Britain

  18. Hitler’s Allies and Friends • Germany and Italy • The Rome – Berlin Axis (1936) • Pact Between Hitler and Mussolini • Germany and Soviet Union • Nazi – Soviet Pact (August, 1939) • Nonaggrression Pact – Countries Would Never Attack Eachother • Also Secretly Agreed to Divide Up Poland Between Two Countries • Bad News for the Rest of Europe

  19. The Start of World War II • Germany Invaded Poland on Sep. 1, 1939 • Blitzkrieg (Lightning Warfare) • Attack Using All of Germany’s Superior Military Forces • Luftwaffe • Tanks • More Numerous Soldiers • Great Britain and France Declare War – Sep. 3 • Too Late to Save Poland • Poland Ceased to Exist in About Two Weeks • Soviet Union Invaded From East and Took Territory

  20. Map Showing German Invasion of Poland (1939)

  21. The Phony War and Sitzkrieg • Both Sides of the Conflict Were at Ease For Several Months After the Conquering of Poland • Maginot Line (French and British) • Sigfried Line (German) • Blitzkrieg Turned Into Sitzkrieg (Sitting War) Maginot Line Sigfried Line

  22. German Reactivation of the Blitz • Hitler Attacked Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg by May, 1940 • Hitler’s Excuse: “To protect [those countries] freedom and independence” • Hitler’s True Purpose: • Build Military Bases Along the Coasts Be Used to Attack Great Britain German Luftwaffe Fighter Badge

  23. The Fall of France • Beginning in May, 1940 – Germany Began its Advance on the Maginot Line and France • The French and Allied Forces Put Up Little Defense Against the British Blitz • Eventually Nazi Forces Pushed Allied Troops (400,000 Total) to Beaches of Dunkirk • Operation Dynamo (May 26 – June 3) • Duce Mussolini Entered War and Attacked France From South At the Same Time • France Surrendered to Nazi Troops – June 23, 1940

  24. Marshal Philippe Petain – French Hero – Called Back to Boost French Morale Fighting Against Germany • Upon Surrender – Became Leader of Vichy France • Tried to Lead Collaborative Government in Southern France • Known as the ‘Traitor of France’ – Was Eventually Returned to French and Sentenced to Death by French Government

  25. Operation Sealion • Once Hitler Occupied France, The Only Country Remaining in Western Europe for Him to Take Was Great Britain • Began the Attack of Great Britain in July, 1940 • The Battle Was Fought Completely in the Air • G.B. Had a Superior Navy So Hitler Believed He Needed Superiority of the Skies (Luftwaffe) • Beginning Point for Hitler: 1) Airfields 2) Manufacturing Centers • Eventually Changed Strategy and Focused on Cities • Eventual Daily & Nightly Raids Over Great Britain • RAF Eventually Secured G.B. From German Control (Radar) • Germany Pulled Back Operation and Focused on Invasion of U.S.S.R.

  26. America Moves Toward War

  27. The U.S. in the Midst of War • Roosevelt Desperately Tried to Remain Neutral Even When Hitler Was Expanding in Europe • Neutrality Act of 1939 • U.S. Will Sell Weapons on a “Cash and Carry” Basis to Democratic Nations • American Response to Battle of Britain • Increase in Defense Spending  Huge Air Force & Two Ocean Navy • Selective Service Training Act  First Peacetime Draft in American History

  28. Presidential Election of 1940 Franklin Roosevelt: 449 Electoral Votes 54.7% Popular Vote Wendell Wilkie 82 Electoral Votes 44.8% Popular Vote • Roosevelt Broke Tradition and Ran for 3rd Term as Pres. • Candidates Were Very Similar So Many Americans Voted for Candidate They Knew Best

  29. “The Great Arsenal of Democracy” • After the Election Roosevelt Didn’t Have to Worry About His Critics as Much – America Would Be the ‘Arsenal of Democracy’ • The U.S. Cannot Remain Neutral When the NAZI Goal is World Domination  The U.S. IS THREATENED • The Lend – Lease Plan • The U.S. Would Lend or lease Arms and Other Supplies to “Any Country Whose Defense Was Vital to the United States” • Is Basically U.S. Economic Entrance into WWII • Roosevelt Also Laid Out ‘Four Freedoms’ • Speech and Expression • Religion • Freedom From Want • Freedom From Fear

  30. The War Overseas Continues

  31. Keeping America Out of the War • Tripartite Pact (Axis) Signed on Sep. 27, 1940 • Germany, Italy, Japan • Pact For Mutual Defense and Military Support • Aimed to Keep the U.S. Out of the War • Was the Reason for the Development of U.S. 2 – Ocean Navy

  32. The Axis Powers Continue to Expand • Germany Invades Northern Africa in Feb. 1941 • General Erwin Rommel & ‘Afrika Korps’ Arrive w/ Tank Squadrons & Attack Greece and Northern Africa w/ Help of Italian Military • Hitler Lied Again – Nazi / Soviet Pact • Invaded the Soviet Union in July 1941 • Operation Barbarossa • Laid Siege to Major Soviet Cities • Leningrad – 900 Days • Germany Was Looking for Lebensraum • Took Soviets by Surprise • The Americans Actually Helped to Soviets thru Lend – Lease Policy • Began American Warfare Against U – Boats in Atlantic “If Hitler Invaded Hell, the British Would Be Prepared to Work With the Devil Himself” Winston Churchill on the German Invasion of the Soviet Union

  33. The Atlantic Charter • Roosevelt Was Basically Planning for War in the U.S., Presuming the U.S Would Be Forced to Enter • Roosevelt and Churchill Met on USS Augusta & Created the Atlantic Charter  A Basic Declaration of War Aims: • Collective Security, Disarmament, Self – Determination, Economic Cooperation, Freedom of the Seas • Declaration Signed by 4/5 of the Human Race • The U.S. / German Naval Warfare Continued in the Atlantic & the U.S. Government Allowed Merchant Ships to be Armed

  34. Japanese Imperialistic Aims • As European Countries Were Tied Up w/ Hitler in Europe – Japan Saw Chance to Expand • Invaded China & Other French Military Bases in the Pacific • U.S. Response: • Embargo (Especially Oil) • Japan Saw As Partial War Declaration and Prepared for Attack on the U.S. Japanese Emperor Hirohito

  35. Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941 • Japanese Planned Surprise Attack and Did Not Wait For American Military Forces to Build Up and Attack Japan First • Two Waves of Attacks • 7:55 a.m. • 8:50 a.m. • Total Losses: • 2403 Killed • 1100 Wounded • 18 Ships Sunk or Destroyed • 188 Planes Destroyed • Japanese Lose 29 Planes and 64 Men

  36. The United States in World War II

  37. The American War Machine Starts Again • Japan Believed America Would Shudder and Back Down From a Superior Japanese Force • America Did Exactly the Opposite and Nationalism Soared • Military Mobilization • The Selective Service Act Increased & Eventually 16 Million Men & Women Served in WWII • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) • Worked in Every Part of Military Service Except Combat • Minorities Also Served in Segregated Units and Saw Some Wartime Combat

  38. The Government Takes Control of the Economy • Wartime Production Increased in Factories and Fewer Consumer Products Were Available • Prices Looked as they Would Climb Outrageously • Office of Price Administration (OPA) • Goal: To Fight Inflation • How: 1)Freeze Prices on Most Consumer Goods 2) Raised and Extended Income Taxes • Encouraged People to Purchase War Bonds • Encouraged Rationing (Meat, Shoes, Sugar, Coffee, Gasoline) • War Production Board • Goal: To Ensure that the Armed Forces and War Industries Had the Resources Needed to Win the War • Converted Certain Industries to Wartime Production

  39. Propaganda Campaign of ‘Rosie the Riveter’ Got Women into the Workforce • War Labor Board: • Worked to Maintain Standard of Living for Working Americans

  40. The Early War for the Americans • The Allies Struggled Early in the War • Hitler’s ‘Wolf Packs’ Dominated Seas • Sunk Millions of Tons of Supplies Headed to Europe • Germany Laid Siege to Soviet Union • Were Stopped From Taking Moscow and Leningrad by Cold in 1941 • Attacked Southern Soviet Union in 1942 – Oil Fields • Battle of Stalingrad (1942 – 1943) • Soviet Union Furious at Allies – Didn’t Open a Second Front to Help Soviets

  41. Stalingrad -- 1942

  42. Movement of Fronts in Europe • Roosevelt & Churchill’s First Plan: • Deal With Hitler First, Then Worry About Japan • Operation Torch – November 1942 • Invaded North Africa @ Casablanca Among Other Places • Didn’t Believe Allies Had Enough Power to Land in Europe • British and American Forces Squeeze German Troops in Northern Africa • Battle of El Alamein – Nov. 1942 (Turning Point of Campaign) • Germans Surrender in North Africa – May 13, 1943 Erwin Rommel The “Desert Fox”

  43. Commander of Operation Torch: Dwight D. Eisenhower

  44. Defeating Italy • Casablanca Conference – January 1943 • Roosevelt and Churchill Decide: • Will Only Take Unconditional Surrender • Invasion of Italy to Get to Germany • Allied Troops Very Successful & Make Way Up ‘Boot of Italy’ • The End of Mussolini: • Mussolini Was Stripped of Power – July 25, 1943 • “At this moment, you are the most hated man in Italy” • Germany Refused to Let Allies Out of Italy • Did Not Want Fighting to Get to Germany • Battle of Anzio – Early 1944 Roosevelt and Churchill @ Casablanca