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Chapter 5 Skeletal System

Chapter 5 Skeletal System

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Chapter 5 Skeletal System

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  1. Chapter 5Skeletal System

  2. Skeleton • Greek meaning “dried up body” • Axial & Appendicular • Functions: • Support • Protection • Movement • Storage • Blood cell formation

  3. Bones • 206 bones • Compact and spongy bone • Long bones • Short bones • Flat bones • Irregular bones

  4. Long BonesGross Anatomy • Diaphysis – compact bone • Periosteum – covering diaphysis • Epiphyses – ends • Articular cartilage – covers epiphyses • Epiphyseal line – remnant of plate • Yellow marrow – fat storage • Red marrow – RBCs • Bone markings (table 5.1)

  5. Long BonesMicroscopic Anatomy • Osteocytes – mature bone cells • Lacunae – cavities • Lamellae – circles of lacunae • Haversiancanals – cavity with blood supply • Osteon – canal and matrix rings • Canaliculi – connect cells to haversian canals • Perforatingcanals – canals at right angles

  6. Bone Formation, Growth and Remodeling • Ossification has two major phases • Hyaline model is covered with bone cells (osteoblasts) • Hyaline model digested away, making medullary cavity. Hyaline stays in the articular cartilages and epiphyseal plates Bone remodeling: Osteoclasts – activated by PTH to destroy bone and release calcium into the blood stream

  7. Homeostatic Imbalance • Rickets: • Childhood disease in which bones fail to calcify. Lack of vitamin D or of calcium. Milk, bread and others are fortified with Vit D. Sun.

  8. Bone Fractures • Simple fracture – bone breaks cleanly and does not penetrate skin • Compound fracture – broken bone ends penetrate skin • Fracture treated by reduction • Closed reduction: bone ends are put back into normal position by doctor • Open reduction: surgery is performed to secure them with pins/plates/wires

  9. Compound Fracture Open Reduction

  10. Fracture Healing • Four events: • 1. Hematoma formed by ruptured blood vessels • 2. Break splinted by fibrocartilage callus (cartilage matrix, bony matrix and collagen fibers). “Splints” the bone, closing the gap • 3. Bony callus formed (spongy bone) • 4. Bony callus remodeled over months time

  11. Axial Skeleton • Skull: • Cranium and Facial Bones • Cranium bones: • Frontal (forehead) • Parietal (superior & lateral. Paired… form sagittal suture and coronal suture) • Temporal (inferior to parietal… form squamous sutures. External auditory meatus, styloid process, zygomatic process, mastoid process, jugular foramen) • Occipital (most posterior. Forms lambdoid suture. Opening called foramen magnum. Occipital condyles) • Sphenoid (floor of cranial cavity. Sella turcica, foramen ovale, sphenoid sinuses) • Ethmoid (roof of nasal cavity. Crista galli, cribiform plates) • Facial Bones: • Maxillae (paired and fuse to form upper jaw. Palantine process, paranasal sinuses) • Palantine (paired. Posterior part of hard palate. Cleft palate) • Zygomatic (paired. Cheekbones) • Lacrimal (paired. Medial walls of orbit) • Nasal (paired. Bridge of nose) • Vomer (single bone. Nasal septum) • Inferior Conchae (paired. Inside nasal cavity) • Mandible (single bone. Largest, strongest bone in face) • Hyoid Bone • Closely related to mandible and temporal bones. Suspended midneck above larynx. Movable base for tongue and attaches neck muscles)

  12. Fetal Skull

  13. Axial Skeleton • Vertebral Column (spine) • Intervertebral discs • 24 bones • 7 cervical (neck) • Atlas and axis • 12 thoracic • 5 lumbar • Sacrum • 5 Fused vertebrae • Coccyx • 3-5 fused tiny vertebrae. “tailbone”

  14. Vertebrae • Body • Vertebral arch • Vertebral foramen • Transverse processes • Spinous process • Superior and inferior articular processes

  15. Axial Skeleton • Bony Thorax • Sternum • Jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint • Ribs • 12 pairs. True ribs (1st 7), False ribs (last 5 NOT attached to sternum)

  16. Appendicular Skeleton • Shoulder Girdle • Upper Limbs • Pelvic Girdle • Lower Limbs

  17. Shoulder Girdle • Clavicle • Scapulae • Acromion • Coracoid process • Glenoid cavity

  18. Bones of the Arm • Humerus • Greater, lesser tubercles • Deltoid tuberosity • Radial groove • Trochlea • Capitulum • Radius – lateral • Radioulnar joints • Interosseous membrane • Radial tuberosity • Ulna – medial • Coronoid process • Olecranon process • Trochlear notch • Carpal bones • Carpals • Metacarpals • Phalanges

  19. Greater tubercle Trochlear notch Lesser tubercle Olecranon process Coronoid process Radial tuberosity Proximal radioulnar joint Radial groove Deltoid tuberosity Interosseous membrane Ulna Radius Distal radioulnar joint Capitulum Trochlea Posterior Humerus Anterior Humerus

  20. Pelvic Girdle • Ilium • Sacroiliac joint • Iliac crest • Ischium • Pubis • Pubic symphysis • Acetabulum sacroiliac joint iliac crest ilium sacrum pubic bone acetabulum ischium Pubic symphysis

  21. Lower Limbs • Thigh • Femur • Greater, lesser trochanters • Intertrochanteric line/crest • Gluteal tuberosity • intercondylar notch • Leg • Tibia (larger, more medial) • Tibial tuberosity • Medial malleolus • Anterior crest • Fibula • Lateral malleolus • Foot • Tarsus (7 tarsal bones) • Calcaneus • Talus • Metatarsals • 14 phalanges

  22. Joints • Functionally • Synarthroses (immovable) • Amphiarthroses (slightly movable) • Diarthroses (freely movable) • Structurally • Fibrous • Cartilaginous • Synovial

  23. Fibrous Joints • Sutures of skull • Syndesmoses (tibia and fibula)

  24. Cartilaginous Joints • Pubic symphysis • Intervertebral joints • Hyaline-cartilage epiphyseal pates of growing long bones • Cartilaginous joints between first ribs/sternum

  25. Synovial Joints • Four characteristics • Articular cartilage • Fibrous articular capsule • Joint cavity • Reinforcing ligaments • ASSOCIATED… • Bursae • Tendon sheath

  26. Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Plane Joint • Nonaxial • Intercarpal joints of wrist • Hinge Joint • Uniaxial • Elbow, ankle, joints between phalanges • Pivot Joint • Uniaxial • Proximal radioulnar joint • Condyloid joint • “knuckle-like”, biaxial • Metacarpophalangeal joints • Saddle joint • Biaxial • Carpometacarpal joints in thumb • Ball-and-socket joint • Multiaxial • Shoulder, hip

  27. Inflammatory Disease • Bursitis • Sprain • Arthritis • Osteoarthritis • Rheumatoid arthritis • Gouty arthritis

  28. Developmental Aspects • Birth: UL ratio 1.7:1 • 10 yo: UL ratio 1:1 • Osteoporosis