UNIT 4: GLOBAL HEALTH Unit 4 Outcome 1
1.4 The influences on the health status of developing countries compared to Australia of income, gender equality, peace/political stability, education, access to health care, global marketing and physical enviroonment
KEY SKILL • COMPARE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE HEALTH STATUS AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT OF AUUSTRALIA AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Must be able to discuss how ‘factor’ in relation to Australia and then how it is experienced in developing countries… NEED TO BE SPECIFIC!!! Explain how FACTOR impacts on health- discuss in positive and negative impact Explain how FACTORS impact on human development- discuss in positive and negative impact THIS IS AN AREA THAN NEEDS PRACTICE!!!! YOU WILL ONLY BE ABLE TO DO THIS SKILL THROUGH DOING PRACTICE AND GETTING FEEDBACK.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fxyhfiCO_XQ • FIRST WORLD PROBLEMS vs THIRD WORLD PROBLEMS
PETER PAN: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVOjFllP3z8 • HAITI DIRT COOKIES: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s3337cj4sJQ
Income & poverty Poverty is associated with: • Higher rates of malnutrition • Higher rates of maternal mortality • Higher U5MR • Lower levels of education • Lower levels of literacy • Gender imbalances • Income allows access to: • - adequate nutrition • - health care (immunisations, check ups, prenatal care, operations, medication) • - safe housing/shelter • - education (enhanced capabilities) • - clean water and sanitation
Income and poverty • Income can be looked at in two ways: • The income of an individual or a family (monies earned from employment, or monies that are available) • The income of a country: • Gross National Income: the amount of income generated in a given year after expenses owing to other countries have been paid. • Gross Domestic Product: the market value of all goods and services produced in a country in a given year • WHAT IS POVERTY (DEFINITION) • Being deprived: unable to provide resources such as safe water and sanitation, education, social security and adequate health care. • Living on less than a certain amount per day (often US$1 a day)- absolute poverty • Living on less than 50% of their countries average income- relative poverty
There is a direct link between a lack of income, poverty and ill health. How much money an individual earns or has available to them Low GNI= no money to spend on health care, education, water supply etc which results in POVERTY • Deprived of: • Food • Shelter • Health care • Water
IMPACT ON HEALTH, HEALTH STATUS & HD • Poor immune system, increased risk of infectionand an increased U5MR. • Depending on type of work- injuries, lack of ability to become educated to earn a higher income and get out of poverty cycle. (H)- reduced capabilities (reading and writing) (HD). • OUTCOME OF POVERTY: • Malnutrition • Lack of education • EXPLANATION OF HOW: • Inability to afford nutritious food • Children (girls) having to work instead of going to school to help earn money COME UP WITH SOME MORE EXAMPLES USING TEXT BOOK TO HELP
Impact on health and human development- how to answer sac/exam questions • FACTOR: • IMPACT ON HEALTH: • IMPACT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT:
The Girl Effect www.girleffect.org http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WIvmE4_KMNw GENDER EQUALITY/INEQUALITY • Gender equality= women having the same power and control over their lives as men do. • In many countries, women have less power and less control compared to men. • Gender inequality impacts upon the individual (women), their family and the community. • In Australia, females experience most of the same opportunities as males. The laws protect the rights of both males and females and both sexes are provided with equal opportunities in relation to education, work and leisure. • There are many different ways in which gender inequality can be experienced: • Lack of education/literacy • Politically: women hold less seats in governments • Neglected of health care • Last to be fed • Violence/abuse and rape • Arrange marriages • Genital Mutilation • Lack of rights and ability to make own decisions • Physical labour • Trafficking of young girls
Genital mutilation Procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. NO HEALTH BENEFITS FOR WOMEN Read pages 69-71 on booklet and answer relevant questions.
VCAA 2010, SECTION B, QUESTION 6 • The following information is about Ethiopia- a country located in Africa. • Ethiopia ranks 27th in the world in under five mortality rates, with a rate of 210 per 1000 and an infant mortality rate of 69 per 1000. • Ethiopians have a life expectancy of 55 years. • One third of the population survive on less that $US1 per day. • Children in Ethiopia are orphaned as a result of HIV/AIDS. This has increased the number of child-only household families and the burden on the elderly, particularly the grandparents and the community. Ethiopia has the largest HIV/AIDS infected population in the world, contributing to very high adult mortality. • Access to basic and quality education and educational materials in Ethiopia is generally low. Female enrolment/attendance compared to male is low. • The total adult literacy rate is 36%. • Children in Ethiopia die from childhood diseases that could easily be prevented through immunisationand basic health services. • Access to clean water and sanitation faculties are inadequate. • Malnutrition affects a large proportion of the population. Children in particular are highly affected by malnutrition. • Explain the likely influence of income and gender equality on health status in Ethiopia. • Gender equality • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • 2 marks
Impact on health and human development- how to answer sac/exam questions • FACTOR: In developing countries women often experience arranged marriages • IMPACT ON HEALTH: • In developing countries it is not uncommon for women to be exploited through an arranged marriage at an early age e.g 15yrs. As a result young females are likely to likely to be sexual abused by their husband, become pregnant and experience child birth at a young age. This places the mother at risk of maternal mortality (due to complications e.g obstructed labour from a small pelvis). It also increases the likelihood of having lots of children within a limited time frame due to a lack of family planning. • IMPACT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: • After giving birth, women are expected to look after the children and husband whilst also cleaning, collecting water, cooking etc. There are limited opportunities and choices for women to go and expand their capabilities through education and employment. As a result women are not able to live to their full potential and make decisions that affect their life.