Chapter 5 Section 3 World History Mrs. Thompson Mr. Williams Alexander the Great
Macedonia Attacks Greece Macedonia lay north of Greece. Philip II of Macedonia united the Greek states. Macedonians raised sheep and horses and grew crops in their river valleys. They were warriors who fought on horseback.
The Plan to Win Greece Philip II rose to the throne of Macedonia in 359 B.C. He admired everything about the Greeks. He took some city-states by force and bribed the leaders of others to surrender. He wanted to make his kingdom strong enough to defeat the Persian Empire. He needed to unite the Greek city-states with his own kingdom.
Demosthenes He urged Athens and other city-states to fight the Macedonians together. He warned the Athenians of the threat of Philip II. was a lawyer and one of Athens’s great public speakers. Fighting had destroyed farms and killed many people. The Peloponnesian War had weakened and divided Greece. BUT:
Many young Greeks had left to join the Persian army as well, and Athens could not stop Philip II. And then... In 338 B.C., the Macedonians crushed the Greek allies at the Battle of Chaeronea near Thebes. So What? Philip then controlled all of Greece.
Alexander builds an Empire. Main Idea: Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and spread Greek culture throughout southwest Asia.
Alexander was 20 when he became king of Macedonia after his father was murdered. He was trained about war as a boy, and commanded the army at age 16.
Result: Alexander’s army overran the rest of the Persian Empire. In 334 B.C., he invaded Asia Minor with 37,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 mounted warriors. At the Battle of Granicus, Alexander destroyed the Persians. In 331 B.C., Alexander went east and defeated the Persians at Gaugamela near Babylon. Alexander’s Conquests He freed the Greeks in Asia Minor and defeated another army at Issus. By the winter of 332 B.C., he had captured Syria and Egypt and built the city of Alexandria as the center of business and trade on the coast of northern Egypt.
In 326 B.C., he crossed the Indus River and entered India and fought numerous bloody battles. On the return march, the troops entered what is modern-day Iran. Heat and thirst killed many soldiers. When his soldiers refused to go any further, he agreed to let them go home.
According to a Greek historian, when the soldiers found a little water and scooped it up, Alexander, “in full view of his troops, poured the water on the ground. So extraordinary was the effect of this action that the water wasted by Alexander was as good as a drink for every man in the army.” In 323 B.C., he returned to Babylon to plan an invasion of Arabia, but he died ten days later with a bad fever. He was 32.
Alexander's Legacy A legacy is what a person leaves behind when he or she dies. He was a great military leader. He inspired his armies to march into unknown lands and risk their lives in difficult situations. The key to his success may have been his childhood education. He kept a copy of the Iliadunder his pillow. Aristotle was his tutor.
Alexander extended Greek and Macedonian rule and culture over a vast area. In turn, Greeks brought new ideas back from Asia and Africa.
Hellenistic Era Alexander’s conquests marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era. It refers to a time when the Greek language and Greek ideas spread to the non-Greek people of southwest Asia. The word Hellenisticcomes from a Greek word meaning “like the Greeks.” Alexander’s Conquests
After Alexander’s death, his generals fought each other for power. Alexander the Great planned to unite the Macedonians, Greeks, and Persians in his new empire. Breaks Apart The Empire He used Persian officials and encouraged his soldiers to marry Asian women.
Egypt Macedonia The empire divided, and four kingdoms took its place. Pergamum Seleucid Empire
All government business was conducted in Greek language. GUESS WHAT?!? Any Egyptian or Asian applying for government job had to speak Greek. This way the Greeks remained in control.
By 100 B.C., the largest city in the Mediterranean world was Alexandria. The new Greek cities needed architects, engineers, philosophers, artisans, and artists. Hellenistic rulers encouraged Greeks and Macedonians to settle in southwest Asia.
These new colonists: were a pool of government officials were new recruits for the army helped spread Greek culture into Egypt and as far east as modern-day Afghanistan and India. became new workers in these areas