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adjectives n.
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Adjectives

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Adjectives

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  1. Adjectives

  2. FORMS OF ADJECTIVES • How many different declensions are there for adjectives? • Two 1st-2nd declension and 3rd declension

  3. Declension and Base • How can you tell if an adjective is 1st-2nd declension or 3rd declension? -a = 1st-2nd -is = 3rd • How can you get the base? Drop -a or -is

  4. Tell me the declension of the following • acer, acris, acre • facilis, facile • calidus, calida, calidum • clarus, clara, clarum • aureus, aurea, aureum • brevis, breve • sacer, sacra, sacrum • commotus, commota, commotum • dexter, dextra, dextrum

  5. FORMS • Adjectives of the 1st-2nd declension have endings that look like… • 1st-2nd declension

  6. 1st and 2nd declension endings

  7. MEMORIZE THEM • If you have not memorized these forms… • DO IT!

  8. Forms • 3rd declension adjectives have forms that look like…. • 3rd declension (more or less)

  9. 3rd declension adjective forms

  10. Memorizing 3rd declension adjectives • These are more confusing • If you are having trouble, memorize the 3rd declension I-stem noun chart, and that will work most of the time.

  11. FOCUS FOR NOW WILL BE… • 1st-2nd declension adjectives modifying any declension of noun

  12. Agreement • An adjective must agree with the noun it modifies in … • GENDER • NUMBER • CASE

  13. AGREEMENT continued • Agreement does not necessarily mean the endings will match • equosceleres = fast horses • militemferum = wild soldier • nullamspem = no hope • sometimes they do match • equosmultos = many horses • militemacrem = fierce soldier

  14. FIGURING IT OUT • Start with the NOUN • Look up or memorize the gender. Sometimes the meaning will tell you, but not always. • You need to know the declension of the noun to figure out the case and number • The more you memorize the easier it is

  15. Figuring it out • Figure out the gender number and case of the noun • Determine the base of the adjective • Determine the declension of the adjective • Choose the same gender, number and case as the noun, but choose it from the adjective chart

  16. blind horse (acc. sing.) • Start with horse – it is 2nddecl masculine and the base is equ--- so add the 2nddeclmasc acc sing to equ--- and you get equum • Get the base of caecus, caeca, caecum • caec--- • It is 1st-2nd declension so look at the 1st-2nddecl chart. Pick masculine,accusative, singular - caecum • So the answer is equumcaecum

  17. famous leaders acc. plural • dux, ducisis 3rd decl. The base is duc--- the acc. pl. is –esso the answer is duces • clarus, clara, clarum means famous. The base is clar--- the declension is 1st-2ndso the ending is -osso the answer is claros • ducesclaros

  18. Try these • acc. pl. tall girls • dat. sing. blind soldier • abl sing. famous band of men • gen. pl. grateful slaves • acc. sing. filthy dog altus, alta, altumpuella, puellae caecus, caeca, caecum miles, militis clarus, clara, clarummanus, manūs gratus, grata, gratumservus, servi foedus, foeda, foedumcanis, canis

  19. answers • puellasaltas • militicaeco • manuclarā • servorumgratorum • canemfoedum