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Dyslexia

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Dyslexia

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  1. Dyslexia John Keenan j.keenan@worc.ac.uk

  2. Los Understand more about dyslexia Improve knowledge of strategies to help a dyslexic person

  3. We are all disabled

  4. What labelled disabilities are there?

  5. Bipolar ADHD Autism Dyslexia Sensory Dyspraxia

  6. Self-fulfilling prophecy • Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) • Pupils with learning difficulties (Good and Brophy, 1984) • Teacher smile at them less often; they call their names to answer a question less often; they demand less work from them

  7. 20% - learning difficulties physical, sensory, emotional, behavioural Cited in Doyle, 1996: 72

  8. Dys Lexicos

  9. ‘Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty of neurological and biological origin that is most often characterized by a significant discrepancy between measures of working memory and reasoning ability together with a weakness in the speed of processing information that may be manifested through weaknesses in a variety of educational attainments, particularly literary skills, as well as everyday tasks’ Lawrence, 2009: 38-39

  10. ReserchAsisstent KloZing Dait: oh3-tooØØ11SallarRee: BannEdd Fiyv, AytEen, 7Øniyn pownz - - TweNteeWun,68Wun pownz pURr anNem (prOw raRtur fourpart tiym ars) Deppartmunt: WourSSter Bizness Skool - SenTEr foRe PeEpl @ Werk (SeaPeA@Dubbleyou) ARS: FlecKsabl beTweAnØ.6 FTE andfOoltIym (thertee7 ars purrweak) - buyneggociaceanStart Dayt: AzsooNazpoSsable Dyouracean: Apoyntmant to0thurteefurst Jooliy2ØØ9inisherlee Ressponssabl tWo: Dirrekterof SeePee@Doubleyoue Ressponsabl fOUr: EnN/ay Inturvuedayt: NiynteanthMrcahTWOØØ11

  11. Opposing hand up and say the third word of the question backwards • What does it pay for 21+? • How many hours per week? • What’s the closing date for applications? • When are they interviewing?

  12. ReserchAsisstent KloZing Dait: oh3-tooØØ11SallarRee: BannEdd Fiyv, AytEen, 7Øniyn pownz - - TweNteeWun,68Wun pownz pURr anNem (prOw raRtur fourpart tiym ars) Deppartmunt: WourSSter Bizness Skool - SenTEr foRe PeEpl @ Werk (SeaPeA@Dubbleyou) ARS: FlecKsabl beTweAnØ.6 FTE andfOoltIym (thertee7 ars purrweak) - buyneggociaceanStart Dayt: AzsooNazpoSsable Dyouracean: Apoyntmant to0thurteefurst Jooliy2ØØ9inisherlee Ressponssabl tWo: Dirrekterof SeePee@Doubleyoue Ressponsabl fOUr: EnN/ay Inturvuedayt: NiynteanthsMrachTWOØØ11

  13. Leftrightleftrightleftright… • Port is left starboard is right • Port has a green light, starboard has a red light • Dexter is right, sinister is left

  14. What do you already do for dyslexic pupils?

  15. Support strategies • Write down main points • Use pictures, flow-charts, mind-maps • Colour all crucial information on the walls • Practical/kinaesthetic work • Interact one-to-one • Signpost topics and key points • Allow students time to absorb information. • Use recorders • Always give out homework instructions ready printed • VAK • ‘primacy and recency’ rule • Use a font without serifs; Arial or Comic Sans. • Print some copies on blue and cream paper. Your score out of 13?

  16. History of dyslexia Kussmaul 1877 – word blindness Berlin 1877 – dyslexia Hinshelwood 1895 – congenital Norrie 1938 - organisation for dyslexic people Miles and Miles 1990 Dyslexia: A Hundred Years On

  17. ‘It is illogical for a person to say, ‘My child cannot read because he is dyslexic’...It tells us no more than saying a person is bleeding badly because he has a haemorrhage or that someone has a high temperature because they are feverish.’ Doyle, 1996: 69 Pumfrey and Reason (1998) 11 definitions Rice and Brooks (2004) 40 definitions Cited in Mortimore, 2008: 50

  18. ‘It seems to be a natural human phenomenon to want to classify events and concepts and then apply labels to them....the use of the label ‘dyslexia’ should present no problems just as long as it is understood that it may describe a variety of behaviours...it remains a challenge to educate the public regarding the concept of dyslexia’ Lawrence, 2009: 139-140

  19. Alexia Auditory dyslexia Deep dyslexia vs Surface dyslexia (rules) Dysphoneticdyslexia Graphemic processor dyslexia Hyperlexia (speaking) Morphemic dyslexia Semantic processor dyslexia Strephosymbolia (mirror) Visual processor dyslexia Doyle, 1996: 70-71

  20. Phonemes Grigorenko (1977) Chromosomes 6 and 15 linked to a weakness in phonological awareness Lateralization McLoughlin et al (2002) memory in the right and left frontal lobe, right more than left (Galaburda, 1989) but less dominance so ‘confused laterality’ Magnocellular Stein and Walsh (1997) speed of movement between cells

  21. How do I recognise a dyslexic pupil? *They ask the right questions, lively and interested, but any written work is relatively poor and/or poor handwriting. *They arrive late, hand in work late *They mix up instructions

  22. Typical issues 223 pupils Reading – 86% Spelling – bizarrre Left-right – 67% B and d – 65% Sentence memory Rhyme Miles (1983) cited in Doyle, 1996: 91-97 223 pupils

  23. Teacher Response 1 Multiple Intelligence Gardner, dyslexic people have a different way of learning Intelligences: kill smn

  24. Teacher Response 2 Mindmaps

  25. Previous experience of life Shared knowledge Purpose of language Language structures Letter sounds words Reason 1990 ‘Effort after meaning’ Bartlett 1932 cited in Pumfrey and Reason, 1991: 59-60

  26. Information processing: dyslexia Possiblestrengths • Colour • Pics, diagrams, • Talk • Hands-on stuff • Empathy • Logic Likelyweaknesses • Black on white text • Tracking print • Copying • Remembering short-term

  27. Fernald Multisensory Approach Orton-Gillingham Method Gillingham-Stillman Alphabetic Method Alpha to Omega Edith Norrie Letter Case The Bangor Teaching Programme Bannatyne’s Colour Phonics The Hickey Method Peabody Rebus Reading Programme Aston Index Aston Portfolio Assessment Spelling Made Easy (Brand, 1984) The Icon Approach Reading Recovery (1988) The English Colour Code Programmed Reading Course (1976) Patterns of Sound (1968) Pictogram System (1973) Signposts to Spelling (1978) ARROW (Aural – Read – Respond – Oral – Written) (1990) Attack – a-Track Simultaneous Oral Spelling Psycho-motor programmes Embedded pictures Mnemonic drawings Finger spelling Syllabification Cursive script

  28. Teacher solutions http://www.dys-add.com/DV3Handout.pdf

  29. Screening and assessment • LADS; Lucid Adult Screening Test is available on UW campus terminals. • Cost to student £100

  30. Bibliography Bennett, D. 2006 Dyslexia Pocketbook Teachers’ pocketbooks Buzan,T. 1997 The Mind Map Book London : BBC Saunders & White 2002 How Dyslexics Learn Evesham: patoss Eckersley, J. 2004 Coping with Dyspraxia Sheldon Press Biggs, V. 2005 Caged in Chaos Jessica Kingsley Pubs. Mortimore T 2008 Dyslexia and Learning Styles Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Hunter-Carsch M and Herrington M 2001 Dyslexia and Effective Learning London: Whurr Pumfrey P and Reason R 1991 Specific Learning Difficulties London: Routledge Doyle J 1996 Dyslexia: an Introductory Guide London: Whurr Publishers Massey J 2008 Meeting the Needs of Students with Dyslexia London: Network Continuum Edwards J 1994 The Scars of Dyslexia London: Cassell Stirling EG 1987 Help for the Dyslexic Adolescent Chippenham: St David’s College Turner E and Pughe J 2003 Dyslexia and English London: David Fulton Publishers British Dyslexia Association www.bda-dyslexia.org.uk Dyslexia Institute www.dyslexia-inst.org.uk

  31. More information British Dyslexia Associationwww.bda-dyslexia.org.uk Dyslexia Institute www.dyslexia-inst.org.uk Dyspraxia Foundation www.dyspraxiafoundation.org.uk Sarah Nichols, MA, Dip RSA, AMBDA Specialist Academic Support Tutor, University of Worcester s.nichols@worc.ac.uk

  32. Bibliography Bennett, D. 2006 Dyslexia Pocketbook Teachers’ pocketbooks Heath & Ellis 1997 Beating Dyslexia Celebration of Life Buzan,T. 1997 The Mind Map Book London : BBC Pubs Saunders & White 2002 How Dyslexics Learn Patoss, Evesham Eckersley, J. 2004 Coping with Dyspraxia Sheldon Press Biggs, V. 2005 Caged in Chaos Jessica Kingsley Pubs. Henderson, A. 1998 Maths for the Dyslexic David Fulton Chinn, S.2007 Dealing with Dyscalculia; Sum Hope Souvenir Press