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Dyslexia

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Dyslexia

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  1. Dyslexia

  2. Definition 1968 “A disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and socio-cultural opportunity. It is dependent upon fundamental cognitive disabilities, which are frequently constitutional in origin.”

  3. Definition 2003 • “A specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provisions of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”

  4. Introduction • “Neuro-developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and a balanced sociocultural background.” • Reading age 2+ years behind chronological age • ‘Dys’- Difficulty or hard • ‘Lexia”- Pertaining to words • Difficulty with words • Independent of intelligence • Lifelong difficulty • Nature changes with maturation and development • Frequently found with other neuro-developmental disorders

  5. Classifications • Primary Dyslexia • Caused by specific central nervous system defect • Secondary dyslexia • Results from pathological changes in the central nervous system secondary to trauma or disease

  6. Prevalence • Most prevalent and researched • 80% of learning-disabled • School aged children 5-17% • More prevalent in boys

  7. Symptoms in Reading • No single set of symptoms • Word reversals • Skipping words • Re-Reading lines • Pointing to words • Word substitution • Unable to tell difference between two letters that look similar • Letters of words appearing completely backwards • Bird-drib

  8. Verbal Symptoms • Faulty pronunciation • Difficulty acquiring vocabulary • Difficulty following directions • Difficulty with word retrieval • Confusion with words • Difficulty understanding concepts and relationships of word and sentences

  9. Non-Linguistic Characteristics • Problems with coordination of eye movements • Poor motor control • Problems with early sensory processing • Problems with sequence • Problems with keeping time

  10. Social and Emotions Problems • Inability to meet expectations • Anxiety • Anger • Lower self-image and self esteem • Depression http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IEpBujdee8M

  11. Causes • Heritable disorder • 23-65% • Absence of family history • Genetic markers • Autoimmune diseases • Substance abuse during pregnancy • Nutrition

  12. Strengths of students with dyslexia • Curious • Good oral skills • Excellent spatial awareness • Vivid imaginations • Excel in • Art • Music • Architecture • Science • Creative design

  13. Accommodations • Extra time for reading • Tape recorders in the classroom • Audio books • Instruction in word processing • Use of spell-checker • Colored overlays or colored filters • Testing orally • Use of computers

  14. Accommodations Cont. • Grade on content • Turn written assignments into projects • Reading guides • Clarify or simplify written directions • Use visuals • Play games • Maintain daily routines

  15. Short term goals • Do homework • Turn homework in on time • Improve the ability to spell new words • Improve the ability to tell time • Increase reading time by 2 minutes each night

  16. Long term goals • Read a whole novel • Write an essay • Be able to read out loud • Be able to read fluently • Be able to read in front of a group

  17. Example of adult writing

  18. Example of child writing

  19. Resource • List of applications and online games that could be beneficial to someone with dyslexia • Apps for Apple • Scramble with Friends • Hanging with Friends • Draw Something • Words with Friends, • Apps for Android • Words with Friends • Hanging with Friends • Scramble with Friends • Draw Something • Online Games • Chicktionary • Draw My Thing • Boggle Bash • Word Ruffle • Word Stone • Websites • BoxerJam, PBS Kids

  20. Bibliography Vance, Kate O’Brien. (2004). Music Instruction for Students with Dyslexia. Music Educators Journal, 90, 27-31. Bendak, L. (2010). The Role of Individual Education Plans in Helping Cycle One Students with Dyslexia to Become Better Readers. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, 9, 42-47. Wajuihian So, Nadooa KS. (2011). Dyslexia: An Overview. The South African Optometrist, 70, 89-98. Bowman M. Ed., Fran Levin & Vincent Culotta, Ph.D. (2010). Adult Self-Assessment Tool: Are You Dyslexic?. In The International Dyslexia Association. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.interdys.org/AreYouDyslexic_AdultTest.htm. NCLD Editorial Staff . (2009). What is Dyslexia. In National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.ncld.org/ld-basics/ld-aamp-language/reading/dyslexia. Van Den Honert, Dorothy. (2012). Everything You Wanted to Know About Dyslexia but Didn't Know who to Ask. In Reading From Scratch. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.dyslexia.org/.