dyslexia n.
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  1. DYSLEXIA Procedures Concerning Dyslexia 2012-2013

  2. Participant Expectations • Be punctual • Be an active participant • Silence cell phones • Refrain from texting • Demonstrate mutual respect for others and their ideas • No laptops unless required for training purposes. • Only one conversation will go on at once (unless subgroups/large groups are working on a topic)

  3. COMMON SIGNS of DYSLEXIA The following signs may be associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual’s age, educational level, or cognitive abilities.

  4. COMMON SIGNS of DYSLEXIA Pre-school: • May talk later than most children • May have difficulty pronouncing words (i.e., busgettifor spaghetti, mawn lower for lawn mower) • May have poor auditory memory for nursery rhymes and chants • May be slow to add new vocabulary words • May be unable to recall the right word • May have trouble learning numbers, days of the week, colors, shapes, and how to spell and write his/her name

  5. COMMON SIGNS of DYSLEXIA Kindergarten through 3rd grade: • Fails to understand that words come apart: example, that snowman can be pulled apart into snow and man and, later on, that the word man can be broken down still further and sounded out as: /m/ /ă/ /n/ • Has difficulty learning the letter names and their corresponding sounds • Has difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation)- lacks a strategy • Has difficulty spelling phonetically • Reads dysfluently (choppy and labored) • Relies on context to recognize a word

  6. COMMON SIGNS of DYSLEXIA 4th grade through high school: • Has a history of reading and spelling difficulties • Avoids reading aloud • Reads most materials slowly; oral reading is labored, not fluent • Avoids reading for pleasure • May have an inadequate vocabulary • Has difficulty spelling; may resort to using less complicated words in writing that are easier to spell

  7. DOMAINS to ASSESS The district administers measures that are related to the student’s educational needs. Depending upon the student’s age and stage of reading development, the following are the areas related to reading that should be assessed: • Reading real and nonsense words in isolation (decoding) • Phonological awareness • Letter knowledge (name & associated sound) • Rapid naming • Reading fluency (rate & accuracy) • Reading comprehension • Written spelling

  8. English Language Learners (This refers to students served in bilingual and ESL programs as well as students designated limited English proficient (LEP) whose parents have denied services.) Much diversity exists among English language learners (ELLs). The identification and service delivery process for dyslexia must be in step with the student’s linguistic environment and educational background. Involvement of the Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC) is recommended.

  9. Identification of Students with Dyslexia (504 Committee) A team or committee of knowledgeable persons determines whether the student has dyslexia. The team must be knowledgeable about the following: • The student being assessed • The reading process • Dyslexia and related disorders • Dyslexia instruction • District or charter school, state, and federal guidelines for assessment • The assessments used • The meaning of the collected data

  10. Referral to Special Education If the student with dyslexia is found eligible for special education, the admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee must include appropriate reading instruction on the student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP). Appropriate reading instruction includes the descriptors listed.

  11. Components of Instruction • The instructional program should be offered in a small class setting and include reading, writing, and spelling as appropriate. The major instructional strategies should utilize individualized, intensive, and multisensory methods as appropriate. • Components of instruction, as appropriate for the reading needs of the student, include the following: • Phonemic awareness instruction • Graphophonemic knowledge (phonics) instruction • Language structure instruction • Linguistic instruction • Strategy-oriented instruction

  12. Essentials of an Early Intervention Program • Systematic and direct instruction in: • Phonemic awareness- noticing, identifying , and manipulating the sounds of spoken language • Phonics- how letters and letter groups represent the sounds of: • Spoken language • Sounding out words (decoding) • Spelling • Reading sight words • Vocabulary and concepts • Reading comprehension strategies • Practice in applying the above skills in reading and in writing • Fluency training • Enriched language experiences: listening to, talking about, and telling stories

  13. Core Principles of Response to Intervention (RTI) • The assumption and belief that all children can learn. • Early intervention for students who demonstrate risk for reading disabilities. • Use of a multitiered model of service delivery. (To achieve high rates of student success, instruction must be differentiated in both nature and intensity.) • Use of a problem-solving or standard-protocol method to make decisions within a multitier model. • Use a research-based, scientifically validated interventions/instruction to the extent available. • Monitoring of student progress to inform instruction. • Use of data to make decisions. A data-based decision regarding student response to intervention is central to RTI practices.

  14. TIER I: Core Classroom Reading Instruction • Tier I should involve the use of a scientifically based core instructional program for all students; a universal screening in essential academic areas to identify each student’s level of proficiency (three times per year); and teachers’ use of flexible grouping to target specific skills and differentiate instruction for at-risk students. Ongoing assessment of progress and monitoring of reading achievement gains are required for students identified as at risk, based on the universal screening.

  15. TIER II: Intervention • Tier II is designed to meet the needs of students who do not respond to the scientifically base core reading instruction. These students should be provided intensive small group reading instruction. The reading intervention should be scientifically based, emphasizing the five essential components of early literacy (i.e., phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). Progress monitoring should occur to ensure adequate progress and learning. Goals for students should be established. Progress monitoring data should be documented. Students who meet set criteria on targeted skills as a result of Tier II interventions are reintegrated into the regular classroom setting (Tier I).

  16. TIER III: Intensive Instruction Note: Prior to Tier III instruction, students who exhibit the characteristics of dyslexia should be formally assessed. • A small percentage of students who have received Tier II supplemental instruction continue to show marked difficulty in acquiring necessary reading skills. These students require instruction that is more explicit, more intensive, and specifically designed to meet their individual needs. Some of these students may be students with dyslexia. Students who meet identification through formal assessment as a student with dyslexia should receive small group dyslexia instruction using a program characterized by the descriptors.

  17. Will dyslexic students be allowed extra time to test? • In most cases, students who are identified with dyslexia by the admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee or Section 504 placement committee will meet the eligibility criteria for the extra time accommodation. This accommodation provides students extra time to complete the test until the end of the regular school day.

  18. Will the dyslexia bundled accommodations continue to be offered to eligible students taking the STAAR reading assessments? • Two of the three bundled accommodations will be available for students with dyslexia and other reading disabilities on the STAAR reading assessments in grades 3 through high school—the oral reading of item stems/answer options only and extended testing time, if needed. These accommodations do not need to be offered as a bundle; the needs of the student should be considered when determining which accommodations to use. A proper-nouns list like the one used in the TAKS assessments will no longer be provided.

  19. Authority of Decision • For a student with dyslexia not receiving special education services who meets both criteria listed, the decision to provide the bundled accommodations must be made either by the student’s placement committee as required by §504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and documented by the school in the student’s Individual Accommodation Plan (IAP) or by the committee of knowledgeable persons as outlined in The Dyslexia Handbook- Revised 2007. In the latter case, the committee’s decision must be documented in writing in appropriate school records.

  20. Authority of Decision • For a student receiving special education services who meets both criteria listed, the decision to provided the bundled accommodations must be made by the student’s admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee and documented in the student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP).