300 million + adherents primarily in China and S.E. Asia • Originated near modern Nepal around 530 BC by prince Siddhartha Guatama. • Indian traders brought it to China in 1st century AD. • By 6th century it had lost its hold on India, but was now in Korea and Japan.
Buddhism began in the foothills bordering the Ganges Plain about 500 B.C. • For centuries remained confined to the Indian subcontinent • Missionaries later carried it to other countries and regions • China — between 100 B.C. and A.D. 200 • Korea and Japan — between A.D. 300 and 500 • Southeast Asia — between A.D. 400 and 600 • Tibet — A.D. 700 • Mongolia — A.D. 1500 • Developed many regional forms and died out in its area of origin
The Four Noble Truths 1) sorrow and suffering must be endured by all 2) suffering and sorrow result from the greedy desire for pleasure 3) escape from such suffering and sorrow is achieved by giving up such desires 4) reaching a state of enlightenment and perfect peace called nirvana by following the Middle Way
The Eightfold Path right views right intentions right speech right action right living right effort right mindfulness right concentration Birthplace of Buddha
Karma - your past bad or good actions determine your progress toward Nirvana through reincarnation. You are your own God. Theravada - the older, more severe form which requires the renouncing of all worldly goods and desires. Mahayana - focuses on Buddha’s teachings and compassion.
Spread of Buddhism • After Buddha’s death, followers collected the “Tripitaka” (3 baskets of wisdom) • Duty • Golden rule • Overcoming evil w/ good Two Sects Theravada – original teachings Mahayana – easier for people to follow – pictured Buddha as a god & defined nirvana Buddhism declined in India.
Cultural and Biological Exchanges Along the Silk Roads • The Spread of Buddhism and Hinduism Insert map on page 257
Relic Worships at Stupas • Relics are parts of the Buddha’s body (hair, nails, bones, teeth, etc.) that have great power and can bless those who worship them • Stupas are Buddhist temples that house a relic of the Buddha
Buddhism & Hinduism Compared • Grew from the same traditions • Both stress nonviolence and believe in karma, dharma, moksha, & reincarnation • Buddha rejected priests, rituals, and many Hindu gods. • Buddha rejected the caste system and offered the hope of nirvana to all. • Buddhists seek enlightenment through meditation