Civil Rights Movement Recent American History Unit III
Introduction to Civil Rights Movement Work in assigned groups to develop definition of assigned word in definition column Write down its significance to the civil rights movement as well as today…provide examples in each of these categories
Discrimination Making a distinction in favor of or against a person or “thing” What is discrimination’s significance to the civil rights movement? How does this word apply to today?
Racism Hatred or intolerance of another race or other races What is racism’s significance to the civil rights movement? What does racism look like today?
Prejudice An unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought or reason What was prejudice’s significance to the civil rights movement? What place does prejudice hold today?
Segregation The practice of separating people of different races, classes, or ethnic groups What is segregation’s significance to the civil rights movement? What does segregation look like today? Do we still segregate?
Separate But Equal? • Activity Directions: • Actively read Separate But Equal? Article in its entirety • Create a skeleton timeline of the history of African American rights…or lack thereof • Be Prepared to Answer Questions: • Why is psychologist Kenneth Clark significant? What did he find in his study? • Explain the effects of the Brown v. Board ruling.
What Should I Be Able To Do? • Explain how legalized segregation deprived African Americans of their rights as citizens • Describe the basis of the Brown vs. Board ruling • Trace the development of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and explain its effects
Civil Rights Legislation • Plessy vs. Ferguson • Established the “separate but equal” clause • Declared that separation laws did not violate the 14th Amendment • Jim Crow Laws • Laws in South aimed at separating the races • Facilities provided to blacks always far inferior to those provided to whites
Brown v. Board of Education • Black schools in the South were drastically unequal • 30 cents per dollar spent on white children. • Fewer teachers, inferior resources, No extra curricular activities. • Brown v. Board set to establish that segregated schools were inherently unequal.
Civil Rights Legislation • Brown vs. Board of Education • Overturned “separate but equal” • Ruling basis: to separate children solely based on race makes black children feel inferior, therefore separate education facilities are inherently unequal • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) • Argued cases against segregation • Thurgood Marshall served as head lawyer • Most famous for winning the Brown vs. Board of Education case
“A child born to a Black mother in a state like Mississippi... has exactly the same rights as a white baby born to the wealthiest person in the United States. It's not true, but I challenge anyone to say it is not a goal worth working for.”-Thurgood Marshall
Chief Justice Earl Warren’s Exact Words… • “To separate African American children from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone…We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”
Essential Question Why do you think the Brown vs. Board decision is such a landmark case in history?
End of Dual Society Neither the atom bomb nor the hydrogen bomb will ever be as meaningful to our democracy as the unanimous decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that racial segregation violates the spirit and letter of our Constitution. This means that beginning of the end of the dual society in American life and the …segregation which supported it. ~ Chicago Defender
Bloodstains on White Marble Steps …Human blood may stain Southern soil in many places because of this decision but the dark red stains of that blood will be on the marble steps of the United States Supreme Court building. White and Negro children in the same schools will lead to miscegenation. Miscegenation leads to mixed marriages and mixed marriages lean to the mongrelization of the human race. ~Jackson, Daily News
FIRST DAY The Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education integrated the schools. Here, the first day of desegregation, on Sept. 8, 1954, at Fort Myer Elementary School in Fort Myer, Va.
Segregation Continues… But a little boycott in Montgomery, Alabama began to shake up the Jim Crow
Essential Question What/who sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
Montgomery Bus Boycott • The Boycott Begins • Dec. 1st, 1955 Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on a segregated Alabama bus • Arrested for violation of city’s segregation laws • Key Players • African Americans across city boycott bus system • Women’s Political Council (WPC) organized telephone chains, leaflets, and carpools • Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) created to promote and support boycott • Martin Luther King Jr. is the leader of MLA and spokesman for boycott
MLK’s Exact Words… • “My friends, I want it to be known that we’re going to work with grim and bold determination to gain justice on the buses in this city. And we are not wrong, we are not wrong in what we are doing. If we are wrong, the Supreme Court and this nation is wrong. If we are wrong, God Almighty is wrong….If we are long, justice is a lie. And we are determined here in Montgomery to work and fight until justice runs down like water and righteousness like a mighty stream.”
Montgomery Bus Boycott • White “Intimidation” Response • Imaginary traffic violations • Ku Klux Klan marches • Attempts failed!
Montgomery Bus Boycott • Effects of the Boycott • In 1956 federal judges ruled against Montgomery segregation laws • Intimidation by whites no longer worked • Laid foundation for civil rights struggle in the 1960s • King became spokesman for the movement
Essential Question What was the basis of the Brown vs. Board of Ed ruling?
Big Picture Segregation remained widespread in the U.S. after WWII, especially in the South but there were signs of change. The Supreme Court ruling Brown vs. Board heralded the beginning of the modern civil rights movement.
A World of Black and White Reading • Directions: • Actively read article • Be prepared to answer questions: • What are some of the characteristics of the black classroom pictured on page 7? • Who were the Little Rock Nine? • What happened to Elizabeth Eckford the first day of school? • What did President Eisenhower do to help the Little Rock Nine? • What is meant by the statement “One Down…Eight to Go?”
Big Events of the Civil Rights Movement Reaction to Brown vs. Board Ruling
What Would You Do? The year is 1960 and you are a young African American college student in Greensboro, North Carolina. You and four of your friends go to Woolworth’ s to buy school supplies. Woolworth’s is similar to Walgreen’s with a small Perkins inside. After you have bought your school supplies, you decide to have a soda at the lunch counter. When your friends and you sit down, you are told that Woolworth’s lunch counters don’t serve coloreds and are asked to leave.
What Would You Do? It is April 1963 and you are an African American student. You live in Birmingham, Alabama. Birmingham is considered one of the most segregated places in the U.S. Over the past two months you have seen your parents and friends participate in different protests. They have been arrested and at time have faced violence from local police. The protests have made the white authorities so angry that they have banned any kind of protest. You find out that young adults and children are planning a peaceful march through the city. On May 2nd and 3rd you and 1,000 other youths march through the streets of Birmingham. This makes the police chief so angry that he orders the police to use dogs, fire hoses and clubs against you and your friends.
NONVIOLENT RESISTANCE • Nonviolent Resistance • Boycotts • Marches • Demonstrations • Civil disobedience
Little Rock Nine • Description • Governor in Arkansas ordered National Guard to turn away the 9 African-American students attending all white school • Nine verbally and physically harassed • Effects • Eisenhower forced to become involved; sent in paratroopers to “escort” 9 in and out • Only one student graduated
Here, on Sept 4, 1957, Elizabeth Eckford arrives alone and is met by the Arkansas National Guard, who have orders from Arkansas Gov. OrvalFaubus to keep blacks from entering Little Rock Central High School.
A mock lynching by white students at Little Rock Central High School, some of whom staged a walkout.
President Dwight Eisenhower calls the standoff and rioting by whites "disgraceful" and sends troops from the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock. On Sept. 25, 1957, the "Little Rock Nine" attend their first full day of classes under escort from federal soldiers.
Woolworth Sit-Ins • Description • Protested segregated lunch counters • Highly publicized • Protestors faced white violence • Effects • Media captured racism in south • Sparked many sit-ins across south
A section of the lunch counter from the Greensboro, North Carolina Woolworth's is now preserved in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History
Freedom Riders • Description • Protestors rode on segregated buses • Protestors brutally attacked • Effects • President Kennedy forced to become involved • Sent 400 U.S. marshals to protect riders • Banned segregation in all interstate travel facilities (waiting rooms, restrooms and lunch counters)
James Meredith and Ole Miss Incident • Description • James Meredith enrolled in all-white • Purpose to desegregate U of Miss. • Effects • Kennedy ordered federal marshals • Riots resulted in two deaths • Federal officials escorted Meredith to class