Chapter Two The Pursuit of an Ideal Diet
I. The ABC’s of Eating for Health • Characteristics of a good diet plan (ABCMV) • Adequacy: Provides all of the essential nutrients, fiber & energy (calories) in amount sufficient to maintain health. 2. Balance: Provides a number of types of foods in balance with one another, so that foods rich in one nutrient do not crowd out of the diet foods that are rich in another nutrient.
Cont’d 3. Calorie Control: Control of consumption of energy (calories). 4. Moderation: Provides no unwanted food or nutrient in excess.
VARIETY Different foods are used for the same purpose on different occasions
B. Nutrient Density • A food that supplies large amounts of nutrients relative to the number of calories it contains is nutrient dense. • The higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the calories, the more nutrient dense the food is.
II. The Nutrients • Nutrients are substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance & repair. a. Classes b. Essential vs. Nonessential c. Energy-yielding Nutrients d. Vitamins, Minerals & Water
A. The Six Classes of Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Fat • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
B. Essential vs. Nonessential • Essential nutrients are those that must be obtained from food because the body can’t make them for itself. • Approximately 40 nutrients are known to be essential
C. Energy-Yielding Nutrients • Energy: capacity to do work • Calorie: unit used to measure energy • Energy-yielding nutrients include: • Carbohydrates (4 calories per gram) • Fat (9 calories per gram) • Protein (4 calories per gram) Although not considered a nutrient, alcohol also contributes calories to the body (7 calories per gram)
D. Vitamins, Minerals & Water • Vitamins & Minerals • Do not supply energy, or calories, to the body • Regulate the release of energy and other aspects of metabolism
Water soluble The B vitamins Vitamin C Fat soluble vitamins D A E K Vitamins: organic, or carbon-containing, essential nutrients vital to life & needed in minute amounts
Cont’d • Minerals: inorganic compounds, some of which are essential nutrients • Water • Provides the medium for all life processes in the body • Approximately 60% of the body’s weight is water
III. Nutrient Recommendations • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) • Estimate the nutritional requirements of healthy people • Include separate recommendations for different groups of people of a specific age & gender • Encompasses four sets of values:
Cont’d • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): daily dietary intake levels sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of approximately 98% of healthy people • Adequate Intakes (AI): the amount of a nutrient thought to be adequate for most people; used when EAR & RDA can not be determined
Cont’d 3. Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): the amount of a nutrient that meets the requirement of 50% of the people of a particular age & gender 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): the maximum amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose risk of harm in healthy people when consumed daily; intake above the UL can be harmful
B. RDA for Calories • RDA set at the mean, not above, to ward off greater chance for obesity • Calorie RDA calculated for the reference man & woman
IV. The Challenge of Dietary Guidelines • Provide only general guidelines for calorie intake • Do not address the hazards of nutrient excesses
DIETARY GUIDELINES • Dietary Guidelines for Americans: 10 Things to Know • www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines
VI. Tools Used in Diet Planning • Food Group Plans • Tool that group foods according to similar origin & nutrient content • Specifies the number of foods from each group a person should eat • Provides a pattern for diet planning to ensure adequacy & balance • The Four Food Group Plan • The Food Guide Pyramid • Canada’s Food Guide
Cont’d • Exchange Lists • Lists of foods with portion sizes specified • The foods on a single list are similar with respect to nutrient & calorie content & therefore can be mixed & matched In the diet • Provide help in food selection for calorie control, moderation & variety
Cont’d • Food Composition Tables • Tables that list the nutrient profile of commonly eaten foods • Includes number of calories, grams of fat, milligrams of sodium, etc.
VII. Food Labels • Required Information • Name of the product (statement of identity) • Name & address of the manufacturer • Net contents in terms of weight, measure or count • Ingredients list with items listed in descending order by weight • The Nutrition Facts Panel, unless the package is too small
Cont’d • Nutrition Fact Panel • Serving or portion size • Servings or portions per container • Calories per serving • Calories from fat • The amounts of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium & iron
Cont’d • Daily Values • Compares the amounts of specific nutrients in one serving to the amount recommended for daily consumption • Provided for both a 2,000-calorie diet & a 2,500-calorie diet • The daily values for vitamins & minerals are calculated using the RDI’s
Cont’d • Nutrient & Health Claims • Nutrient content claims: claims such as “low-fat” & “low-calorie” used on food labels to give consumers an idea of a food’s nutritional profile without having to look at the Nutrition Facts Panel • These claims must adhere to specific definitions established by the Food & Drug Administration
Cont’d • Health Claims: a statement on the food label linking the food to a reduced risk of a particular disease • The claim must be supported by scientific evidence • These claims must adhere to specific definitions established by the Food & Drug Administration
Health Claims • Calcium-rich foods and osteoporosis • Low-sodium foods and reduced risk of high blood pressure • Low-fat diet and reduced risk of cancer • A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol and reduced risk of heart disease • High fiber foods and reduced risk of cancer
Health Claims (cont) • Soluble fiber in fruits, vegetables and grains and reduced risk of heart disease • Soluble fiber in oats and psyllium seed husks and reduced riak of heart disease • Fruit and vegetable-rich diet and reduced risk of cancer • Folate-rich foods and the reduced riak of neural tube defects • Sugar alcohols and reduced risk of tooth decay
Health Claims (cont) • Soy protein and reduced risk of heart disease • Whole-grain goods and reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers • Plant stanol and plant sterol esters and heart disease • Potassium and reduced risk of high blood pressure and stroke