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Infinitives and Indirect Statement

Infinitives and Indirect Statement

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Infinitives and Indirect Statement

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  1. Infinitives and Indirect Statement Chapter25

  2. Infinitives Just like participles are verbal adjectives, infinitives are verbal nouns. We’ve already learned the active and passive present infinitives, but most transitive verbs actually have SIX infinitives: present, future, and perfect; active and passive. Intransitive verbs usually lack the passive.

  3. Forming the Infinitives We already know how to form the present infinitives, and the perfect and future form according to the same patterns, regardless of conjugation:

  4. [Future Passive Infinitive] The future passive infinitive of supine in –um + īrī is not a common form. The Romans preferred to substitute this expression with fore* ut + subjunctive [result clause]. The supine in –um has the same form as the perfect passive participle in the nom. neut. sg. *fore = futurum esse

  5. Forming & Translating the Infinitives Let’s try an example verb like amāre

  6. Forming & Translating the Infinitives Let’s try an example verb like amāre

  7. Forming & Translating the Infinitives Let’s try an example verb like amāre

  8. Forming & Translating the Infinitives Let’s try an example verb like amāre

  9. Forming & Translating the Infinitives Let’s try an example verb like amāre

  10. Forming & Translating the Infinitives Let’s try an example verb like amāre

  11. Forming & Translating the Infinitives Let’s try an example verb like amāre

  12. Usage We’ve seen the infinitive used as a subject e.g. errare est humanum and a complement e.g. homines errare possunt It can also serve as a direct object. One of the most common uses of the infinitive is in indirect statement.

  13. Indirect Statement There are two ways to report someone else’s speech: 1. Direct quotation: “The girl is pretty,” said the boy. “Puella est bella,” puer inquit. 2. Indirect quotation: The boy said that the girl is pretty.

  14. Indirect Statement To report indirect speech, Latin uses an infinitive phrase with an accusative subject. The boy said that the girl is pretty. Puer dixit puellam esse bellam.

  15. Indirect Statement Indirect statement is used after ‘head’ verbs (saying, thinking, knowing, feeling, sensing, etc) e.g. dico, nego, narro, scribo, moneo, scio, intellego, puto, video, etc

  16. Indirect Statement The subject accusative is ALWAYS expressed, even if it is the same as the subject of the main verb. I know that I am a good student. Scio me esse discipulam bonam. She knows herself to be a good student. Scit se esse discipulam bonam.

  17. Indirect Statement Here is a situation where word order matters! The accusative subject is almost always put before the direct object of the infinitive.

  18. Tense of the Infinitive Just like with participles, the tense of the infinitive in indirect statement is RELATIVE to the tense of the main verb. Present: Contemporaneous Perfect: Prior Future: Subsequent

  19. Compare ille ait, 'Antōnius Cleopatram amat.’ ille dicit Antōnium Cleopatram amāre. ille dicit Antōnium Cleopatram amāvisse. ille dicit Antōnium Cleopatram amātūrum esse.

  20. Compare inquit, 'Caesar magnam hastam habet.’ ille dixit Caesarem magnam hastam habēre. ille dixit Caesarem magnam hastam habuisse. ille dixit Caesarem magnam hastam habitūrum esse.

  21. Compare inquit, ‘Carthago delenda est.’ ille dixit Carthaginem delendam esse. ille dixit Carthaginem delendam fuisse. [ille dixit Carthaginem delendam iri.] [ille dixit fore ut Carthago delenda esset.]