What is propaganda? • The ideas spread by any organized group for the purpose of influencing human behavior.
How does propaganda reach you? • Newspapers • Magazines • Radio • Television • Internet
Propaganda appeals to An array of Human Motives
The desire to succeed in our ambition or career • The wish to be popular, have friends, be “in” • The urge to marry, to be accepted by the opposite sex or person we romantically desire
The need to earn a living, have money to spend • The craving to possess finer things • The desire for security in old age
The eagerness to be healthy and attractive • The desire to move in respectable circles • The hunger for food
Is the writer or speaker a recognized authority in the particular field? • Can the statement be presented as a personal point of view or as the considered opinion of a group? • Are there a sufficient number of cases of sufficient evidence to justify the conclusion drawn?
Has the truth been somewhat slanted or deliberately distorted by means of evasions, half-truths, or omissions? • Does the statement depend on reason or solely on emotion to appeal to reader or listener? • Is the source of the statement a reliable corporation or individual?
Bandwagon • It suggests an imagery vehicle carrying leaders of a cause or a candidate who has a large following. • It uses such phrases as: • “Everybody’s doing it!” • “Join the crowd.” • “This is the latest and best for you.”
BIG LIE • An outrageous falsehood captures our attention and somehow staggers some people into believing it. • A master at propaganda for evil, Adolf Hitler, said, “The bigger the lie, the sooner people swallow it.”
Glittering Generalization • A statement that jumps from a few cases to a conclusion that is supposed to fit all cases. • It is called “glittering” because it is falsely attractive. • Using empty words without much substance such as “best”, “new”, “#1” or to describe the benefits or uses of something
Name Calling • This is a way of smearing an opponent. Calling him names can damage his reputation or arouse suspicions about his character. • Claiming that the competition is inferior in some way
Plain Folks • This is the corny kind of appeal to the man in the street made by identifying either a person or a product with his particular locality or country. • Appealing to the average, blue collar, hard working consumers. “I’m one of you folks, born and raised in these mountains and I can still shuck corn with the best of you.”
Snob Appeal • The opposite of plain folks • Aims to flatter those who would like to satisfy their ego by assuming that they are better than the rest of mankind in looks, wealth, taste, position, etc. • Appealing to upscale dreams or ASPIRATIONS; not necessarily an expensive product, but appealing to the rich OR those who want to be seen that way
APPEAL TO INDIVIDUALITY • Celebrating a unique style; rebelling against the norm • Opposite of bandwagon • Be different!!!
Hasty Generalization • When a claim states or implies that things are all one way EXAMPLES: • Women are bad drivers. • Oklahomans are Republicans. • Gay people are Democrats. • Gun owners refuse to consider new laws that would make our streets safer.
Scapegoat A scapegoat is a person carrying the blame for others. Sometimes a failing student blames the school or a teacher.
“Slogan” • A slogan is a catchword or phrase loaded with emotion. • A type of oversimplification. • Often tells you little about the product itself • Slogans are usually clever and easy to remember.
Testimonial A statement endorsing a product or an idea when signed by a prominent person A popular favorite carries undue weight when it is used to sponsor something outside his particular field. “If the famous person uses it, it must be good!”
Transfer This device transfers the good impression we have of something we already know to something else that we don’t know. By associating the two we merge our personal reactions without examining the unknown person or thing by itself. “Product A tastes home baked, and we know things that are home baked are supposed to taste better than store bought, so we will like Product A too!”
Guilt by Association • Some charities have been fraudulent. Therefore, charities must be frauds. • Adolf Hitler was a vegetarian. Vegetarianism must be evil. • Osama bin Laden was opposed to the invasion of Iraq. Anyone opposed to the invasion of Iraq must be a terrorist.
BEGGING THE ??? • Assumes something is true when it is in need of proof… when the claim is included in the evidence so nothing is proved • Since I'm not lying, I must be telling the truth. • Roger Drudge's book on politics is the best; it says so inside.
RED HERRING SLIP SLIDE… DISTRACTION… SMOKE • When a rebuttal doesn't address the question and/ or draws attention away from the central issue in an argument or discussion • From the practice of distracting hunting dogs (usually in Fox Hunting) by dragging a smelly, salt-cured Red herring across the trail of the animal/fox they were pursuing to throw the hounds off the scent. EXAMPLE: Q: Did the President have an affair? A: "He's very busy at the moment with the Middle East Peace talks, and has no time for silly accusations. If this bill isn’t signed within the next 12 hours a whole country could lose it’s way of life. Do you want a whole country of men, women, and children to suffer? Do you hate foreigners? Do you hate children?
Straw Man • Attacking an opponent's weaker argument rather than his strongest OR ignoring a person's actual position and substituting a distorted, exaggerated or misrepresented version instead. EXAMPLE: • Many who are for abortion like its convenience. But this is a human life we're talking about, and people need to be concerned with more than convenience. • "Senator Jones says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why he wants to leave us defenseless like that."
Card Stacking • A one-sided case presents only evidence favoring its conclusion, and ignores or downplays the evidence against it. In inductive reasoning, it is important to consider all of the available evidence before coming to a conclusion. • Example: • You have observed several white swans; then you might conclude: • All swans are white. Example: • You've spoke about having seen the children's prisons in Iraq. Can you describe what you saw there? The prison in question is at the General Security Services headquarters, which was inspected by my team in Jan. 1998. It appeared to be a prison for children—toddlers up to pre-adolescents—whose only crime was to be the offspring of those who have spoken out politically against the regime of Saddam Hussein. It was a horrific scene. Actually I'm not going to describe what I saw there because what I saw was so horrible that it can be used by those who would want to promote war with Iraq, and right now I'm waging peace. • Source: Massimo Calabresi, "Scott Ritter in His Own Words", Time, 9/14/2002
Faulty Dilemma • When only two options are given when many choices exist COLLEGESONIC • Either you're for the Republican plan, or you're socialist and un-American.
Equivocation • Using the same word with two different meanings EXAMPLES: • A feather is light. • What is light cannot be dark. • Therefore, a feather cannot be dark. • The sign said "Fine for Parking Here," so since it was fine, I parked there. • Liberal politicians favor a liberal lifestyle of free love and drugs.
Non sequitur • Latin for “it does not follow” • The conclusion does not follow from the argument EXAMPLE: “If my hair looks nice, all people will love me." However, there is no real connection between your hair and the love of all people. • Advertising typically applies this kind of 'deduction'.
Ad Hominem • Latin for “argument against the person” • An attempt to negate the truth of a claim by pointing out a negative characteristic or belief of the person supporting it. EXAMPLES 1. Einstein claims relativity is correct. 2. Einstein is Jewish 3. Hence relativity is false. Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally wrong." Dave: "Of course you would say that, you're a priest." Bill: "What about the arguments I gave to support my position?" Dave: "Those don't count. Like I said, you're a priest, so you have to say that abortion is wrong. Further, you are just a lackey to the Pope, so I can't believe what you say."
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc • Latin for “after this, because of that” • Often shortened to POST HOC • If one event happens after another, then the first must be the cause of the second. EXAMPLES: • A rooster always crows prior to sunrise • Therefore: the rooster’s crowing causes the sun to rise. 1. Ice cream sales elevate greatly each June. 2. The number of common colds lower greatly each June. 3. Therefore: higher ice cream consumption cures the common cold.
Euphemism • Making something sound better than it is. Using a synonym that is a better sounding term than the reality. • Ex. A police officer was asked why he left the police force. His response was, “The chief and I had a difference of opinion.” In actuality, the officer was fired. • Ex. Gasoline prices are expected to be adjusted to match our economic status. In other words, gas prices are going up dramatically as the economy is going down.
IN TOTAL…22 Types of Propaganda Transfer Guilt by Association Begging the Question Red Herring Straw Man Card Stacking Faulty Dilemma Equivocation Non-Sequitur Ad Hominem Post-Hoc Euphemism • Bandwagon • Big Lie • Glittering Generalization • Name Calling • Plain Folks • Snob Appeal • Individual Appeal • Hasty Generalization • Scapegoat • Slogan • Testimonial