What is PROPAGANDA? • Propagandais made up of various different kinds of persuasive techniques that encourage people to act based on their emotions alone, instead of using solid reasoning.
Bandwagon Effect • The use of the “Bandwagon” technique implies to the audience that it should do/think/feel something since everyone else is doing it. • The effect is meant to be that the audience will be “left out” if it does not do/think/feel as others do.
Bandwagon Effect in Text • STATEMENT:“Fifty million people have signed the petition, and fifty million people can’t be wrong.”
Bandwagon in Media • STATEMENT: “More people are smoking Camels than ever before.” • PROPAGANDA:The attempt is to make the audience want to join a large number of people.
Transfer • An attempt to link two items together in the audience’s mind. • Political logos do this frequently; they link patriotic images (like flags) together with a candidate.
Transfer in Text • STATEMENT: “All across the rich, green fields, the towering purple mountains, Americans are discovering Smell-Free Deodorant.”
Testimonial • Quotations or endorsements attempting to connect a famous or respectable person with a product or item. • The effect is meant to be that the audience will desire to be more like the celebrity by doing as the celebrity has done.
Bait and Switch • This technique transfers the readers’ attention from an exciting idea to a less exciting idea. • This technique is in some cases against the law.
Bait and Switch in Text • STATEMENT:“Imagine having more money than you could ever spend! Imagine being rich, famous, and attractive! Dove soap is the first step. • EXPLANATION:The attempt here is to get the audience excited (money, fame, & beauty), and then to switch to something not remotely exciting (soap). • WHY IT IS PROPAGANDA: While the product may or may not be high quality, there is nothing about soap that will lead to money or fame.
Bait and Switch in Media • IMAGE: Lipstick marks, pictures of girls, phone numbers, and deodorant. • PROPAGANDA: The audience is meant to be lured in by images suggesting a man’s attractiveness to women; attention at the bottom of the add is then switched to deodorant. A link is suggested where none actually exists.
Glittering Generalities • Glittering generalitiesare words that are emotionally appealing, but don’t really say anything: (honor, glory, love of country, freedom, etc.) • When examined closely, these words have little meaning and little relationship to what they advertise.
Glittering Generalities in Text • STATEMENT:“We are at a crossroads for human destiny! We must chose a true leader for our city.” • EXPLANATION: The attempt here is to get the audience emotionally connected to the subject through use of words such as “destiny” and “leader.” • WHY IT IS PROPAGANDA: The candidate may or may not be a good leader. The text provides no evidence to suggest actual positive qualities.
Emotional Words • The use of emotional words is meant to stir the audience’s emotions, making little or no use of facts. • Words such as love, adore, hate, care,and/orsupportmay be used to attach the audience’s emotions to a product or idea.
Emotional Words in Media From a leaflet distributed by the North Korean army, encouraging American soldiers to surrender
Repetition • The writer sells an item or an idea by using a certain word again and again until it is associated with the item or idea.
Repetitive Words in Text • STATEMENT: “The senator’s cheapskate tie, cheapskate jacket, and cheapskate shoes should tell you what kind of cheapskate politics he’s practicing.”
Plain Folks • The speaker presents himself as an “Average Joe” to create a sense that he’s the same as his audience, so they should agree on the topic at hand