Segregation a. 14th Amendment granted citizenship to blacks for the first time and guaranteed "equal protection" under the law and "due process" of law b. 15th Amendment guaranteed blacks the right to vote, but was circumvented by Southern states prior to the 1960s (property, poll taxes, literacy tests)
Segregation c. many southern communities were concerned that blacks would gain too much political power by being allowed to vote d. in the 1890s, states used several tactics to circumvent the 15th Amendment and deny blacks the right to vote 1. some states required voters to own property and pay a poll tax (a fee voters were required to pay when they went to the polls) were used to exclude many blacks from voting because they could not pay the fee 2. literacy test (a test given to determine if voters could read the ballot) excluded many blacks who were unable to read 3. grandfather clauses (exempted from poll tax or literacy test anyone whose grandfather had been a registered voter before January 1, 1867) excluded remaining blacks
Segregation e. Plessyv. Ferguson(1896) 1. Herman Plessy argued his right to equal protection of the laws was violated by a Louisiana law segregating railroad cars 2. the Court said that the 14th Amendment was “not intended to give Negroes social equality but only political and civil equality” 3. established the “separate but equal” doctrine • "separate but equal" means that state and local governments may legally separate or segregate different races as long as the separate facilities are equal in quality f. Segregation became the norm in the South 1. segregation laws were known as "Jim Crow" laws->term came from a character in a slavery era blackface minstrel • Civil Rights Act of 1875->prohibited keeping people out of public places based on race • 1883- Supreme Court stated that “no state” could deny citizens their rights->only state actions were subject not private organizations and businesses
Segregation 2. de jurie segregation - by law, legally mandated separation of races 3. de facto segregation - by fact or circumstance, occurs on its own g. Racial Violence-> only thing worse than Jim Crowe Laws 1. lynchings->executions without proper court proceedings • Over 187 a year b/w 1890 and 1899->80% occurred in the South and 70% of the victims were African Americans • Ida B. Wells-> young A.A. woman who launched a campaign to end lynching-> led to decrease in lynchings in the 1900s
African American Response to Segregation a. In the early 1900s, Booker T. Washington urged blacks to temporarily put aside their desire for political equality and focus instead on economic security 1. Washington outlined his ideas, became known as the Atlanta Compromise b. W.E.B. Du Bois rejected Washington's ideas 1. believed blacks must work for social and political equality 2. in 1905, helped organize conference in Niagara Falls, Ontario to discuss racial progress, began the Niagara Movement - called for: § full civil liberties § and end to racial discrimination § recognition of human brotherhood 3. the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) originated - by 1914, the NAACP had 50 branches
African American Response to Segregation 4. NAACP’s early victories-> • Norris v. Alabama (1935)-> ruled that Alabama couldn’t exclude A.A.’s from juries in court • Morgan v. Virginia (1946)-> ruled segregation on interstate buses was unconstitutional • Sweat v. Painter (1950)-> ruled that state law schools had to admit qualified A.A.’s
African American Response to Segregation c. Ku Klux Klan was reborn in 1915 1. first reorganized by William J. Simmons 2. Ku Klux Klan targeted Catholics, Jews, blacks, and immigrants 3. Indiana had largest Klan membership 4. by 1927, Klan activity had diminished d. During the Depression, during World War II, and immediately after World War II, hundreds of thousands of blacks left the South and migrated to northern cities-> Great Migration 1. the North had fewer laws enforcing segregation, but blacks in the North faced discrimination in employment, education, and housing - many ended up living in->urban ghettos
African American Response to Segregation e. 1942 - Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in Chicago by James Farmer - believed in using non-violent techniques to end racism f. June 1943, race riots in Detroit killed 34 people and did millions of dollars worth of damage later the same summer, race riots broke out in New York City g. In the military white and black troops were segregated 1. The Pittsburgh Courier, a black newspaper, started a Double V campaign the first "V" was for victory against the Axis powers, the second was for victory in winning equality at home h. After World War II blacks began to seek more legal rights, greater equality, and an end to segregation 1. black soldiers returning from the war saw hypocrisy in fighting for freedomin Europe when they did not have freedom in the U.S. 2. black soldiers had also experienced European culture which, in most cases, was not segregated and was more accepting of racial differences 3. race relations became a national issue and no longer exclusively a southern issue
African American Response to Segregation i. 1947, Jackie Robinson became the first black player in major league baseball • July 26, 1948 President Harry S Truman signed Executive Order 9981 establishing the President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services and ordering the desegregation of the military 1.the Secretary of Defense announced on September 30, 1954 that the last all- black unit had been abolished 2. the president’s directive put the armed forces at the forefront of the growing civil rights movement
African American Response to Segregation k. Election of 1948 - many southern democrats withdrew from the Democratic Party in protest of Truman’s civil rights policies - formed The States’ Rights Party or “Dixiecrats” 1. met in Birmingham, AL and nominated Gov. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for president - received 39 electoral votes with 1,169,032 popular votes
The Civil Rights Movement Begins a. May 17, 1954 Supreme Court overturned the decision of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS(1954)->Brown’s attorney=Thurgood Marshall-> 1st African American Supreme Court Justice • Linda Brown was denied admission to her neighborhood school in Topeka, KS-> because she was black 1. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote the unanimous decision 2. said that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal 3. followed up with a second ruling in 1955 that said that the South must use “all deliberate speed” to obey the Brown decision • 1954, 101 southern congressmen signed the Southern Manifesto denouncing the court’s “unwarranted decision” in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) as a “clear abuse of judicial power” that “substituted the Justices’ personal political and social ideas for the established law of the land” 1. had no legal standing, encouraged white southerners to defy Supreme Court
The Civil Rights Movement Begins c. December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a Montgomery seamstress, was arrested for refusing her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama 1. Martin Luther King, Jr. - a 27-year old Montgomery minister - helped organize the Montgomery Bus Boycott of city buses a. the city’s bus system was severely affected - 80% of bus riders were black 2. black community leaders help organize alternative transportation - carpools, walking, black cab drivers charged bus fare to black customers 3. many whites were angered by the boycott - hurt financially 4. the White Citizens Council worked against the boycott a. members included the mayor, city council members, businessmen 5. January 30, 1956 King’s house was bombed 6. 88 black leaders were arrested 7. November 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on Montgomery buses is unconstitutional - the 361 day boycott ended soon after 8. the boycott marked the beginning of the organized civil rights movement and the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr. to national prominence as a civil-rights leader d. 1956, Autherine Lucy became first black student admitted to the University of Alabama - she was expelled three days later "for her own safety"
The Civil Rights Movement Begins f. Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1. January 1957, Martin Luther King, Jr. called for a meeting to discuss nonviolent integration a. 60 southern ministers met at an Atlanta conference b. among the attendees were Northern activists Bayard Rustin, Ella Baker, and Stanley Levison, and Southern civil rights veterans Martin Luther King Jr., Fred Shuttlesworth, Ralph Abernathy, C. K. Steele, and Joseph Lowery. 2. the group established a permanent organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) a. elected King as president b. the goal was to "to redeem the soul of America" through nonviolent resistance based on the teachings of Mohandas Gandhi 1. Gandhi was an Indian nationalist and spiritual leader who worked to gain Indian independence from Great Britain c. used sit-ins, boycotts, picket lines d. drew its strength from the black churches of the South, whose ministers were said to mirror the spirit of the community
The Civil Rights Movement Begins d. 1956,the national headquarters of the NAACP asked the U.S. district court to force immediate and complete desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas 1. September 1957, the Little Rock, Ark. School Board decided to let nine black students enroll at Central High School 2. Arkansas Governor OrvalFaubus refused to let the students in 3. September 3, Arkansas Governor Faubus called out the National Guard to prevent desegregation of Central High School 4. ordered to remove National Guard, by the Federal Government 5. President Eisenhower met with Faubus a. Faubus agreed to remove the national guard b. the students were left to the mercy of the angry mob outside the school c. police escorted “the Little Rock Nine” out of the school 6. September 24, Eisenhower federalized the National Guard and called in 101st Airborne - guard remained at the school for the rest of the school year 7. 1958-1959 - Little Rock public schools were closed for the year under Governor Faubus' orders - reopened integrated in 1959 e. Civil Rights Act of 1957->intended to protect A.A.’s right to vote 1. brought the power of federal gov’t into the Civil Rights Movement->created civil rights division in the Dept. of Justice-> created the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights-> investigated allegations of denying voting rights
Origins of the Civil Rights Movement 1. Explain the significance of the 14th and 15th Amendments. 2. What case, in 1896, established the "separate but equal" doctrine? What is meant by separate but equal? 3. Why were poll taxes and literacy tests used in southern states prior to the 1960s? 4. Begun in Niagara Falls, Ontario in 1905, it called for full civil liberties for blacks and an end to racial discrimination. 5. What organization, formed in 1909, worked to gain legal and civil rights for black Americans? 6. What event led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott? 7. What is meant by the term civil rights? 8. How did migration patterns during the Depression and World War II affect the civil rights movement? 9. What was Executive Order 9981? What did it do? When? Why was it significant? 10. Who was Mohandas Gandhi? What effect did he have on the American civil rights movement?
The Election of 1960 • Democratic Party John F. Kennedy ---- Republican Party Richard Nixon->neither candidate took a strong stance on civil rights at first, wanted to please both sides for votes • Kennedy chose Lyndon B. Johnson (a southerner) as the vice-presidential candidate to appeal to southern voters • Kennedy decided to make an all-out effort for the northern black vote • October l9, l960 Martin Luther King is arrested at a sit-in at a lunch counter in Atlanta police claimed he was violating probation which he was on for driving without a license a year earlier Kennedy called King’s wife to express sympathy Robert Kennedy (an attorney) talked to a judge and King was released Nixon did nothing Kennedy won a very narrow victory won 70% of the black vote carried 7 of the 11 deep south states • Kennedy did not fully follow through on his campaign promises to fight segregation appointed some blacks to his administration did little for voting rights yet only 5% of blacks were registered in the Deep South as Attorney General, Robert Kennedy filed 50 voting rights cases On civil rights, Kennedy generally acted only after events forced him to