MAPPING WOMEN, MAPPING GENDER IN THE WORLD OF WORK Saraswati Raju Professor, Centre for the Study of Regional Development Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi 110067 Contact: email@example.com
Women Workers (15 – 59) N High (>= 60) Moderately High (45 - 60) Moderately Low (30 - 45) Low (<= 30) Inadequate sample 1993-1994 1999-2000 2004-2005 All India: 43.4 per cent All India: 44 per cent All India: 40 per cent Per cent Note for all Maps in the Presentation: New states not included for easy comparison across time Map Not to Scale Workers = Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status (UPSS) Source: Computed from unit level data of NSS, various rounds .
N Women Workers (15 – 59) 2007 - 2008 2009 - 2010 All India – 33.6 per cent Note for all Maps in the Presentation: Map Not to Scale Workers = Usual Principal and Subsidiary Status (UPSS) Source: Computed from unit level data of NSS, various rounds . All India - 37.7 per cent
N Women Workers (15-59) in Subsidiary Work, 2007-2008 Rural Urban All India: 44.0 per cent All India: 17.5 per cent
Women Workers (15-59) in Subsidiary Work, 2009-2010 All India: 41.2 per cent All India: 16.5 per cent
N High (>= 85) High (55 – 80) Moderate (65 - 85) Moderate (30 - 55) Low (<= 65) Low (<= 30) Inadequate sample Inadequate sample Illiterate and Below Primary Educated Workers (15 – 59): 2004-2005 Rural Urban Per cent Per cent All India Women: 73.8 per cent All India Male: 45 per cent All India Women: 43.6 per cent All India Male: 20.9 per cent
N Illiterate and Below Primary Educated Workers(15 – 59): 2007-2008 Urban Rural All India - 70.1 per cent All India - 39.9 per cent
m N Urban Per Cent High (55-80) Moderate (30-55) Low (12-30) Inadequate sample Illiterate and Below Primary Educated Workers (15 – 59): 2009-2010 Rural Per Cent High (>=85) Moderate (65-85) Low (<=65) Inadequate sample All India – 65.9 per cent All India – 35.6 per cent
N High (55 – 75) High (20 – 38) High (44 – 84) Moderate (14 - 20) Moderate (40 - 55) Moderate (30 - 44) Low (<= 14) Low (<= 40) Low (<= 30) Inadequate sample Inadequate sample Inadequate sample Women Workers across Employment Status (15 – 59) in Urban India: 2004-2005 Self-employed Regular Salaried Casual Labour Per cent Per cent Per cent All India: 46.5 per cent All India: 36.8 per cent All India: 16.7 per cent
N Women Workers across Employment Status (15 – 59) in Urban India: 2007-2008 Self-employed Regular Salaried Casual Labour All India - 41.4 per cent All India - 39.2 per cent All India - 19.4 per cent
b) Regular Salaried c) Casual Labour Per cent Inadequate sample Low (20 - 30) Moderate (30 - 44) High (44 - 90) Per Cent All India - 40.6 per cent High (20.1-38) Moderate (14-20) Low (<=14) Inadequate sample Women Workers across Employment Status (15 – 59) in Urban India: 2009-2010 a) Self-Employed Per cent Inadequate sample Low (<= 40) Moderate (40 - 55) High (>= 55) All India - 40.1 per cent All India:19.3 Per cent
Self-employed Workers as Home-based (15-59) in Urban India: 2009-2010 Percentage of Workers
Self-Employed Workers as Unpaid Family Labour (15 – 59) in Urban India: 2004-2005
Self-Employed Workers as Unpaid Family Labour (15 – 59) in Urban India: 2009-2010 Percentage of Workers
Self-employed Workers who are Home-based, Rural (15-59), 2009-2010 Self-Employed Workers who are Home-based, Rural (15-59), 2009-2010 Per cent High (>80) Moderate (70-80) Low (<70) Home-based workers Inadequate sample Men Women All India - Men - 38.9 per cent All India Men: 38.9 per cent All India Women - 82.4 per cent All India Women: 82.4 per cent Map not to scale
Educational Level of Self-Employed Home-based Women Workers, Rural (15-59), 2009-2010 Rural Educational Level Illiterate to below primary School Above school All inadequate samples are excluded
Women not in the Formal Labour Market due to Socio-religious Reasons (15-59) Percentage of Women
A Few Pointers • It has been argued that the decrease in 2009-10 superficial as the increase in 2004-05 was distress driven. • Long-term trend shows secular decline. • Somewhat substantiated claim- the added workforce (2004-2005) essentially that of illiterate or lowly literate women. • Decrease in child labour and more girls in educational institutes. • However, 24-35 years of age – absolute decline.
However, regionally differentiated pattern in terms of additional workers – mainly in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. • The outcomes appear similar, but the processes are very different, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh versus Haryana and Punjab.
Overall, the regionally differentiated spaces - the north Indian Plain vis-a-via the rest - show up consistently in terms of formally acknowledged lower work participation rates (principal status) of women. • The subsidiary work pattern is just the reverse - women as supplementary earners. However, when the self-employed women – majority of whom are home-based - are considered, the regional differentiation is stark. • This pattern cuts across comparable poverty levels, cropping pattern & developmental levels.
Cont. . . • It also corresponds with regionally embedded social and religious constraints. • The embeddedness of regional ethos in terms of reticence or liberal towards women`s visibility in public domain. • Inferred from rural-urban correspondence (r-u, 2004-5 = r 08; 2009-10- = r 0.8; r-r = 0.7, u-u = 06, all values statistically significant), suggesting spatially co-varying pattern. • And yet, it gets further complicated.
Cont. . . • When it comes to home-based work and unpaid family labour, the regional variations, with fewer exceptions, are considerably obliterated. • At one level then, regions emerge as significant where at another level, they homogenize. • Thus, as long as women remain within the household sphere, their status as workers gets socially approved whereas the recognition of work in public domain is regionally differentiated. • I argue that this process is contingent upon the almost omnipresent social construct of women`s primary location within the household domain.
Concluding. . . • Even the salaried workers are either in social work or teaching. The category which has shown the highest growth both during 2004-05 and 2009-10 is in domestic work. • Added to this is the observation that now the formal sector contracts out work which is primarily being carried out informally. • The neo-liberal regime that saw overwhelming concentration of women in home-bound work serves the capital well in terms of cheap and flexible labour.
It seems that capital is well-placed to not only use the existing gendered constructs, but also reinforce them to its benefits through a variety of market mechanisms. • The approach paper to the 12th Five Year Plan has no chapter on employment!
Concluding. . . In Sum, • The gendered vulnerabilities and multi-layered and have to be understood through regionally contextualized analyses because the labour market dynamics play out differently in different environs.