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Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement

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Civil Rights Movement

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  1. Civil Rights Movement (1955 – 1968) White: YES YES RED: NO

  2. Church Bombing – Birmingham, AL • 16th Street Baptist Church • 26 children preparing for a sermon • A box of dynamite with a timer under the back steps, by the basement • 4 will be killed • Addie Mae Collins (age 14) • Denise McNair (age 11) • Carole Robertson (age 14) • Cynthia Wesley (age 14) • 3 KKK members will be convicted at different points Sept. 15, 1963

  3. Mississippi Freedom Summer - 1964 • Movement to register the black community to vote, and overcome Jim Crow laws • 1000 activists take to the state – black and white •  three workers will go missing, and will be found murdered • Will help lead to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Resentment by blacks because to whites dead make this struggle national news

  4. Memphis, TN (1968) - Assassination • March 1968 – Sanitation workers will go on strike • April 3, 1968 – {I’ve Been to the Mountaintop Speech} • April 4, 1968 – Dr. King is assassinated in front of his motel doorstep • Remmington 760 Gamemaster; .30 Round

  5. Riots • Civil Right Leaders and friends of Dr. King call for nonviolent responses • Rioting begins in over 100 cities: DC, Baltimore, Chicago, Louisville, Kansas City, ETC. • James Earl Ray – will be sought, captured, confess, and serve prison until his death in 1998

  6. Malcolm X • Born Malcolm Little • May 19, 1925 – Feb 21, 1965 • Father and an uncle will fall victim to hate crimes

  7. Malcolm X • Will be a member of the Nation of Islam in 1952 • Black Supremacy • Yes to racial segregation • Seen as a hate monger • Will leave in 1964 and converts to Sunni (Islam) • Will essentially challenge the stances the Nation of Islam has • Challenge the morality of its’ leaders

  8. Assassination • Was killed by three members of the Nation of Islam • Muhammad Abdul Aziz (Norman 3X Butler) – Harlem Chapter today • Khalil Islam (Thomas 15X Johnson) – Converted to Sunni, died in 2009 • MujahidHalim (TalmadgeHayer) – Paroled in 2009 • All have sworn innocence

  9. Civil Rights act of 1964 • Outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation. • It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements • No poll tax • No literacy requirement • Racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public • You may go anywhere public and be treated equally

  10. Black Panther Party • Marxist-Maoist ideas • Black Nationalism/Racism (early) • Militant – arming the community • Violence is a known tool used by them • New Black Panther Party – Hate group (Anti-defamation League)

  11. We must serve notice on our oppressors that we as a people are not going to be frightened by the attempted assassination of our leaders. For my assassination—and I'm the low man on the totem pole—I want 30 police stations blown up, one southern governor, two mayors, and 500 cops, dead. If they assassinate Brother Carmichael, Brother Brown...Brother Seale, this price is tripled. And if Huey is not set free and dies, the sky is the limit! (James Forman, Black Panther Party Minister of Foreign Affairs) • (Pearson, Hugh (1994). In the Shadow of the Panther: Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America. Perseus Books. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-201-48341-3)

  12. Affirmative Action • 1961 - Executive Order No. 10925,[14] issued by President Kennedy • “For federal contractors and subcontractors, affirmative action must be taken by covered employers to recruit and advance qualified minorities, women, persons with disabilities, and covered veterans. Affirmative actions include training programs, outreach efforts, and other positive steps. These procedures should be incorporated into the company’s written personnel policies. Employers with written affirmative action programs must implement them, keep them on file and update them annually.” (

  13. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS • Each Government contractor with 50 or more employees and $50,000 or more in government contracts is required to develop a written affirmative action program (AAP) for each of its establishments. • A written affirmative action program helps the contractor identify and analyze potential problems in the participation and utilization of women and minorities in the contractor's workforce. • If there are problems, the contractor will specify in its AAP the specific procedures it will follow and the good faith efforts it will make to provide equal employment opportunity. • Expanded efforts in outreach, recruitment, training and other areas are some of the affirmative steps contractors can take to help members of the protected groups compete for jobs on equal footing with other applicants and employees. (

  14. Affirmative Action • Affirmative Action refers to positive steps aimed at increasing the inclusion of historically excluded groups in employment, education and business. Such steps are not designed to offer preferential treatment to, or exclude from participation, any group. To the contrary, Affirmative Action policies are intended to promote access for the traditionally underrepresented through heightened outreach and efforts at inclusion. • (

  15. Affirmative Action • “In its modern form, affirmative action can call for an admissions officer faced with two similarly qualified applicants to choose the minority over the white, or for a manager to recruit and hire a qualified woman for a job instead of a man. Affirmative action decisions are generally not supposed to be based on quotas, nor are they supposed to give any preference to unqualified candidates. And they are not supposed to harm anyone through "reverse discrimination." • (

  16. Reverse Discrimination??? • Ricci v. DeStefano • 2009 Firefighter promotion case • Test is given; because minorities performed poorly and didn’t pass, test is thrown out and white firefighters denied promotion. • Firefighters will sue due to discrimination. They will win and get their promotions.