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The Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears

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The Trail of Tears

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  1. The Trail of Tears Westward Expansion, at the expense of the innocent.

  2. Unit 7, Journal #2 • In a T-Chart in your journals, list five different ways that white settlers have interacted positively and five ways that they have interacted negatively with the Native Americans. • Then, below the chart, create an argument for whether you feel the treatment of Native Americans has been just, peaceful, or violent since Europeans set foot on American soil. Positive InteractionsNegative Interactions

  3. The Cherokee • Since the end of the War of 1812, some southeastern tribes have adopted the European way of life. • These tribes (five, including the Cherokee) became known as the Five Civilized Tribes • The Cherokee had created a formal government, a court system, and a constitution.

  4. Introduction • It is 1830. The population of U.S. citizens in Georgia is growing rapidly and pushing into the western portions of the state. • However, the Cherokee nation occupies a large area of western Georgia.

  5. Introduction • Treaties signed between the United States and the Cherokees guaranteed them the rights to this land • Settlers have begun to move into these territories • Sparks conflicts with the Cherokees • The discovery of gold within the Cherokee territory in 1828 has only made the situation worse.

  6. Jackson and Removal • President Jackson thought that assimilation could not work. • President Jackson urges the Committee on Indian Affairs to draft a bill allowing the President the power to order the removal of all Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River to designated lands west of the Mississippi.

  7. Foreshadowing • Please describe one thing that you feel this bill might cause. • IDEAS: • If the Cherokee were to disapprove, what would happen? • If successful, what would such a removal entail?

  8. POEM • How has the Trail of Tears been remembered?

  9. ACTIVITY • I will assign you either #1 or #2. • Then, you will create a drawing that depicts one of the following sides: • 1. If you are a #1, you will be drawing from the perspective of Andrew Jackson and Indian Removal supporters. You do NOT have to draw the Trail of Tears, but rather, what you find to be a great benefit in their removal. • 2. If you are a #2, you will be drawing from the perspective of the Cherokee nation and Indian Removal opposition. You also do not have to draw about the Trail of Tears, but about your feelings of being forced to move from your home.

  10. DEBATE

  11. Conclusion • So what ultimately happened? • The Indian Removal bill passed in both houses of Congress by a narrow margin and was signed into law by President Jackson. • The Cherokees responded by declaring themselves to be a sovereign nation not under the control of the United States, a declaration upheld by the Supreme Court. • This meant that the U.S. government could not order them to move west of the Mississippi River unless the two nations came to an official agreement on the issue.

  12. Conclusion • The federal government provided the funds to negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move west. About 90 treaties were signed. • In 1838, upon Jackson’s orders, U.S. troops began rounding up members of the Cherokee nation and forcibly marching them to a reservation on the western side of the Mississippi on what became known as the "Trail of Tears." • Jackson claimed that the Removal Act was both liberal and generous because they could maintain their ways of life.

  13. Conclusion • The Cherokee took an 800 mile trip westward. • About ¼ of their people died • Government officials took their money • Robbers made off with their livestock • The Cherokee reached their destination, but the land there was far inferior to what they had been forced to leave.

  14. Was the Trail of Tears necessary or morally unjust?