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The Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears

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The Trail of Tears

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  1. The Trail of Tears Loren Gallimore

  2. Beginning of the Indian Removal Andrew Jackson was elected in 1829 and served for two terms. He was well known for his hatred towards the Indians and he acted quickly to get them off the land.

  3. Drastic Measures by Jackson Jackson was intent on removing five Indian tribes in different states such as North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. These tribes were the Seminoles, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Cherokees.

  4. Continued In 1830, the Choctaw Indians were forced to sign a removal treaty. Though some Indians chose to stay under the terms of the Removal Act, “land-hungry” whites pushed the Indians off the territory. 1832-the Creeks signed a treaty that claimed their land was protected, but whites were told the territory was open for settlement. The Creeks were angry and resorted to stealing livestock and crops and committing arson and murder.

  5. Continued Again in 1832-the Chickasaws signed a treaty that promised suitable lands. Instead, they had to pay the Choctaw Indians to live on their lands. In 1833, a small group of Seminole Indians was forced to sign a treaty. They refused to leave which resulted in the Second Seminole War that cost Jackson 20 million dollars.

  6. The Cherokee Indians The Cherokees were located in Georgia where the white population was rising. In 1790, the population was only 82,548. Forty years later in 1830 the population was almost 820,000. Settlers of Georgia wanted to push the Cherokee Indians west of the Mississippi.

  7. Continued Unlike most Indians, the Cherokees were willing to make changes in order to stay in Georgia. They built roads, schools, and churches. They became farmers and cattle ranchers and owned more than a thousand slaves. They had even created a system of represented government.

  8. Continued Chief John Ross, Daniel Webster, and Henry Clay were against Indian removal. Major Ridge signed the Treaty of New Echota that sealed the fate of the Cherokees. Major Ridge and his son, Elias Boudinot, led 500 of the 17,000 Cherokees to the west.

  9. The Movement West General John Wool was ordered to remove the Indians in 1838. He refused and was replaced with General Winfield Scott. On October 1, General Scott invaded the Cherokee villages. He forced Cherokee men, women, and children from their territory and into stockades. They were then forced to walk a thousand miles west.

  10. Continued As the Cherokee Indians moved west they began to die of sickness, of heat, of exposure, and of drought. Some survivors remember the sight at the edge of the Mississippi River, “hundreds of sick and dying penned up in wagons or stretched upon the ground.” This became known as the Trail of Tears

  11. Once the Cherokees had arrived, four thousand of the seventeen thousand Indians were dead. The president at the time, Martin Van Buren, described the results of the removal to Congress. “The measures authorized by Congress…have had the happiest effects.”

  12. Perspective of Americans At the time, most Americans didn’t think the United States would exceed past the Mississippi, but some thought this was an excuse to get rid of the Indians. As soon as the Indians were off out of the way, whites quickly took the territory and settled there, destroying any evidence that Indians had ever lived there.

  13. Today, this episode of history is briefly, if at all, discussed in a classroom textbook. If the Indian removal had not occurred, if so many Indians had not lost their lives in journey or in battle, the U.S. population would be at drastically higher levels than they are today, which is about 320,000,000.

  14. The Indians’ presence may also have kept America from becoming as developed as it is now. The territory the Indians occupied would not be industrialized like white societies, where change is practically unavoidable.

  15. Works Cited “Cherokee Trail of Tears.” Cherokee Trail of Tears. Golden Ink. 1994. Web. 22 Nov 2013. “Indian Removal.” PBS. 1942. Web. 22 Nov 2013. Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States. New York: Harper & Row. 1980. 22 Nov 2013.

  16. References