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The Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears

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The Trail of Tears

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  1. The Trail of Tears A Presentation by Emily Eddy and Megan O'Malley

  2. Indian Territory Before the Removal

  3. After the American Revolution, American settlers wanted the land owned by the Indians. Georgia threatened to go to war with the Cherokee if they didn’t leave. 1,000 Indian towns were destroyed. Before Removal

  4. Sequoyah invented a written language with his daughter, Ahyokah, and finally created the Cherokee Alphabet. In 1827, they founded their own newspaper printed in both English and Cherokee. Sequoyah and the Cherokees

  5. Promises... • The Indians gave up some of their land. In return, the United States promised to always protect the Indians. • The Indians began to adopt more white ways. They had plantations, businesses, and large herds of cattle.

  6. Tecumseh • Tecumseh was the leader of the Shawnee tribe. • He was determined to unite all of the Indian nations so they could become very powerful and block their territory. This would prevent the Trail of Tears. • Tecumseh was killed in a battle a few years later. • None of the tribes wanted to unite, so Andrew Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act.

  7. The more the Indians succeeded, the more enemies they made. In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected President. In his first address to Congress, he announced that all Indians must be removed. He sponsored the Indian Removal Act. Andrew Jackson and the Indians

  8. Some Cherokees thought the only way to survive was to move West. They signed a treaty agreeing to the removal of the entire nation. This treaty was called the Treaty of New Echola. The Treaty of New Echola

  9. Martin Van Buren sent John Ellis Wool to take away all the Indian’s weapons. Wool ended up siding with the Indians, so Van Buren sent Winfield Scott to round up the Cherokees. Rounding up the Indians Martin Van Buren

  10. All Cherokees were taken captive. Families were separated as they were herded into camps. Food and water were scarce. Many died while held captive. The Stockade Forts

  11. About 60,000 Indians were forced to leave their Native land. Indians were loaded onto flatboats. A lot jumped off or fell off and drowned. Moving Indians by Boat

  12. Chief John Ross persuaded General Scott to let the Indians travel west by themselves rather than being led by the soldiers. Chief John Ross

  13. Each Cherokee was given a $65.88 allowance to buy wagons, horses, oxen, bedding, food, soap, and clothing. Allowances

  14. A lot of wagons were lined up on the path. No one had enough food, blankets, or water. When a bugle was sounded, everyone started to leave. On the Trail

  15. Many people were sick and not up to the adventure. The death rate on the trail was so high, it was named the Trail of Tears. Naming the Trail of Tears

  16. When the Cherokee arrived at their new home, nearby tribes were suffering from smallpox. Other tribes were already living where the Cherokees were told to live. The government promised to give the Indians supplies when they arrived at their new home, but they never came. Their promise to forever protect the Indians had been broken. After Removal

  17. 2nd and 3rd Choctaw Removals • Choctaw removal got underway in the winter of 1831 to 1832. • About 6,000 were removed in the second removal. • During the third removal about 6,000 were removed. • Of all the Choctaws removed, about 2,500 died.

  18. Chickasaw Removal • The Treaty of Ponotoc was passed in 1832, but it had to be amended before the Chickasaws agreed to move. • They wanted to provide their own wagons and supplies. • About 4,000 were removed in 1837. About 600 died of smallpox.

  19. Cherokee Removal • In 1838, the U.S. Army rounded up most of the Cherokees. • The Cherokee Removal became the most infamous of all of them. • 4,000 Cherokees died of lack of food, water, and shelter.

  20. Muscogee Removal • Before the Muscogee Removal, the whites went in and kicked the Indians out. • In 1836, 15,000 Muscogee were rounded up. • 3,500 Muscogee died.

  21. Seminole Removal • Many Seminoles fought Americans for years because they refused to be removed. • Some escaped removal by going north from Florida on boats.

  22. Conclusion • The Trail of Tears was a period of time in history which changed the lives of about 60,000 Indians. It was a story of hope, courage, and determination.

  23. Works Cited • Bruchac, Joseph. The Trail of Tears. New York: Random House, 1999. • Birchfield, D.L. The Trail of Tears. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2004. • Tecumseh and the Trail of Tears. University of Kentucky. April 6, 2005 <http://www.uky.edu/~deen/HIS109/Messages- 004/386.html • Todd, Anne. Chief Tecumseh. Chicago: Heinemann Library, 2004.