Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon and Aromatic compounds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon and Aromatic compounds

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  1. Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon and Aromatic compounds

  2. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS HYDROCARBON DERIVATIVES - alcohols - ethers - esters - amines - carboxylic acids HYDROCARBONS ALIPHATIC AROMATIC e.g. benzene CYCLIC - Rings ACYCLIC -Straightchains ALKANES all C-C single bonds ALKENES at least 1 C=C double bond ALKYNES at least 1 CC triple bond CYCLOALKANES all C-C single bonds CYCLOALKENES at least 1 C=C double bond

  3. Cycloalkanes a type of alkane hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms • Saturatedbecause they contain maximum number of atoms per carbon (4 bonds) • Non-Polar • General formula is CnH2n Cycloalkanes

  4. Cyclopropane Cyclobutane Cycloalkanes Cyclopentane

  5. Cycloalkenes is a type of alkene hydrocarbon which contains a closed ring of carbon atoms • Unsaturated • Non-Polar • General formula is CnH2n-2 Cycloalkenes

  6. Cyclopropene Cyclobutene Cycloalkenes Cyclopentene

  7. Rules for naming Cyclic compounds Step 1: -Determine the root – count the number of carbons in the ring - Add “cyclo” in front the root Step 2: Determine the suffix ( -ane or -ene) Step 3: Start numbering the carbon that has a side chain attach to it and give lowest possible number to the branch Step 4: Determine the prefix Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon

  8. Example: Since there is only one side chain, do not need to number the position Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon ethyl ane hept cyclo

  9. Example: More then one Branch Start numbering at the carbon that contains the branches Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon ane 3-ethyl-1,1-dimethyl cyclo hex

  10. Example: Cycloalkene Start numbering the carbon at the double bond If only one double bond don’t need to number it. Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon ene Cyclo but 2-methyl

  11. Example: Cyclic hydrocarbons as a branch If the straight chain that is attach to the ring has more carbons then the ring, then make the cyclo group the side chain. Naming Cyclic Hydrocarbon ane pent 1-cyclobutyl

  12. Based on the benzene molecule • General formula ( C6H6) • Benzene has the structure • Bonds are actually not double or single, they are a mix between double and single and are much more stable • Don’t go through same reactions as double bonds Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  13. Resonance structure of benzene: • Electrons in the bonds are “shared,” or delocalized, over the whole molecule Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  14. Number carbons in benzene ring by beginning with the branch that has the highest priority( higher #C) • Name any branches that are attached to the ring, giving them position numbers (if there’s only one branch, no number is written). • Place the branch numbers and names as a prefix before the root “benzene”. Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  15. Example: Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons propyl benzene

  16. Prefixes instead of numbers When a benzene ring has only 2 branches, the following prefixes are used Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  17. Isomers

  18. When two or more molecules have the same molecular formula but different structures formula they are called isomers. • There are two types of isomers: • Structural isomers have same molecular formula but the atoms are bonded together in different orders • Stereoisomer isomers have the molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, which differ only in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space Isomers

  19. C H 3 C H C H C H C H C H C H C H 3 3 3 2 2 3 2-methylpropane (C4H10) What are the structural isomers of C4H10? Butane (C4H10 ) Structural Isomers:

  20. What are the structural isomers of C4H8? 2-butene 1-butene Structural Isomers: 2-methylpropene methylcyclopropane cyclobutane

  21. Stereoisomerism about double bonds occur because rotation about the double bond is restricted, keeping the branch's fixed relative to each other • Double bond stereochemistry are described using either cis( on the same side) or trans(opposite side ) Stereoisomer cis-2-butene trans-2 butene

  22. Practice naming the cyclic and aromatic ring from the handout and use tiles to check answer Activity