Protestantism Noelle Wells
The Beginnings • Protestantism began in the early 16th Century with Martin Luther and the 95 Thesesin 1517. • After this, new forms began rising in the late 1520’s • Protestantism formed as Luther and others were dissatisfied with Catholic Church’s beliefs and decided to break away. • Such beliefs were the selling of indulgences and transubstantiation • The term “Protestant” was first used in 1529 after a German Prince protested the Diet of Speyer.
Protestantism Denominations • There are hundreds of Protestant Denominations today. • There are four groups Protestants can be classified as • Lutheran • Anglican/ Episcopal • Reformed • Sectarian or Separatist (Anabaptist)
Early Leaders • Martin Luther- Lutheran • Formed early 1500’s • King Henry VIII- Anglican Church • Ulrich Zwingli- Swiss Reformation • This eventually led to the Anabaptist • This also resulted in the Amish, led by Jakob Amman. • John Calvin- Calvinism • This includes the Reformed and Presbyterian Churched These are some leaders of a few major divisions from the main Protestant Denominations • George Fox- Quaker • Founded mid 17th Century • John Wesley and Charles Wesley- Methodist Church • Founded in early 1700’s. • Robert Browne- Congregational • Formed in 1582 • John Smyth – Baptist • This was formed in 1609
History of Lutheranism • Martin Luther initially had no desire to break from the Catholic Church. • 1546- Emperor Charles V waged war against the major Lutheran regions. This was the War of Schmalkald, which the emperor won. • 1555- Emperor Charles V gave formal recognition of the Lutheran Church at the Diet of Augsburg. • 1576 and 1577- JakobAndreae and Martin Chemnitz got a group to create the Formula of Concord. • 1580- The Formula of Concord was incorporated with the Apostles, Nicene, and Athanasian Creed as well as the Augsburg Confession to create the Book of Concord. This embodied the confessional identity of German Lutheranism.
History of Lutheranism (cont’d) • Around this time, Lutherans wanted to make an inerrant Bible. • Lutheran ideas moved to Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, and Transylvania but had little government support there. It later moved to Scandinavia. • By the 17thcentury, Sweden was Lutheran and a power in Europe. • Lutheranism was established in North America in the 17thcentury, the first large wave coming in 1740’s. • 18thcentury- The European Enlightenment challenged traditional Christian beliefs. • Lutherans such as Christian Wolff and Johann S. Semier supported the connection between reason and revelation. • Later Lutherans decided reason was the way to understand God; this is known as neology.
History of Lutheranism (cont’d) • 1817- King Frederick William III of Prussia decreed Lutheran and Reformed churches will use an identical order of worship; it met mixed opinions. • In the 19th century, the Lutherans began their “inner mission” to help the poor and downtrodden who had been influenced poorly by the Industrial Revolution. • 20th century- European Lutheranism was still divided between liberal and conservative winds. • WWI initiated a conservative reaction. • Dialectic theology- a movement during this time that emphasized the otherness of God and the importance of the Word of God.
History of Lutheranism (cont’d) • The end of WWI resulted in the disestablishment of the Lutheran churches; they were no longer state churches. The Weimar Republic resulted in the separation of Church and State, although Lutherans still had a few privileges. Many Lutherans accepted Nazi policies at the rise of Adolf Hitler. • 1934- Lutheran leaders joined Reformed leaders, creating the Pastors’ Emergency League, which created the Barmen Declaration, which affirmed traditional Protestant values. • By 1950s, Lutherans still had special privileges in certain countries, but church attendance was slowly declining. • 1988- In America, two Lutheran churches, the American Lutheran Church and the Lutheran church in America formed the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. (ECLA)
Examples of Splits • Pietism broke away in 1675. The father of Pietism is Johann Arndt. Philipp JakobSpener published Pious Desires, which is when the division truly began. It was institutionalized in Halle, Germany, by August H. Francke • 19th Century- Theology of Lutherans was divided between three different beliefs. • Liberal – Heinrich E. G. Paulus • Traditional- Ernst W. Hengstenberg and Clause Harms • Meditation- Friedrich C. Schleiermacher • Old and New Lutherans joined together and led the Lutheran theology from 1840s-1870s
History of Reformed • French Protestantism was largely from the Reformed Church • Huguenots during the second half of the 16th century fought for official recognition. • 1598- The Edict of Nantes was established in France. • Reformed churches had a lot of influence with Hungary. In 1576, it emerged as a large power among them. • 1648- The Treaty of Westphalia established the legality of Reformed churches in German states as the Prince decided, as per the Peace of Augsburg. • 1660- Reformed Church members of England became known as noncomformists. They gained some freedoms in 1688 after the Glorious Revolution.
History of Reformed (cont’d) • Scotland refused to acknowledge William and Mary, resulting in a Presbyterian Scotland. • 1685- Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes. • 250,000 French Protestants then emigrated from France, going to Prussia, Holland, England, and America. • 1715- Louis XIV announced the end of toleration for Protestantism. • The rule of Napoleon resulted in Reformed Churches under state control. • 1843- A schism in Scotland resulted in the Free Church of Scotland. • They reunited with the other free churches in 1929 • 1848- A free Evangelical Synod broke from the state-recognized church. They did not unite until 1938. • 1884- A Reformed Alliance was formed in Germany this was to protect their legacy.
History of Reformed (cont’d) • Partitioning of Hungary after WWI and WWII resulted in many Reformed churches in Romania, Yugoslavia, and the USSR. • In Poland, prior to the Counter-Reformation there were many Reformed churches. By the late 20th century, there were only eight congregations in Poland. • January 1934- A synod resulted in a confessional statement in opposition to the German Christian’s corruption of the Word of God. • May 1934- the Barmen Synod occurred, when Lutherans and Reformed came together in the Barmen Confession of Faith. • 1972- United Reformed Church was formed from the Congregational Union of England and Wales, and the Presbyterian Church of England. • 1981- The Reformed Church on Anhalt joined the Union Evangelical Church
Major Splits • Presbyterian (Scotland) • Reformed (Dutch and German) • American Subdivisions (Have currently rejoined to form United Church of Christ) • Evangelical and Reformed Church • Christian Church • Congregationalists (Puritans) • Breakaway group was Unitarians
Huguenot Cross Presbyterian Cross
History of Anglican/Episcopal • 1534- Act of Supremacy in England made King Henry VIII the supreme head of the Church of England. • Henry VIII disestablished English monasteries, demolished Catholic shrines, and made English Bibles be placed in every church. • There are very few differences between Catholicism and the Church of England under Henry VIII • Thomas Cranmer under King Edward created the Book of Common Prayer (1549 and 1552 editions) and the 42 Articles (1553) • 1553- Queen Mary reestablished Catholicism • 1558- Queen Elizabeth reestablished Protestantism • Anglicanism took shape under her reign. • 1690- Anglicanism becomes what it is essentially today. • 17th and 18th century Anglicanism focused on reason, simple devotion, and moral living. • In the late 18th century, Anglicanism in America became the Episcopalian Church.
History of Anglican (cont’d) • 18th Century- the Methodists broke away. • 1833- the Oxford Movement, or the Catholic Revival tried to restore some of the forms of Catholicism to the Church of England. • 1896- Bishop of Rome, Leo XIII declares Anglican orders null and void. • 1910- First World Missionary Conference is held in Edinburgh. • 1913- Anglicans revive Franciscan Movement • 1930- Lambeth Resolutions on the Unity of the Church results in more validity given to Anglican orders. • 1931- Agreement of Bonn says that Anglicans will enter into full communion with Catholics. • 1992- Church of England allows for the ordination of women. • 1998- Lambeth Conference in which eleven women bishops partake.
Major Splits • Baptists • Pentecostal (formed 1901) • Methodist (John Wesley) • Breakaway group- Wesleyan
History of Separatist (Anabaptist) • 1522- Ulrich Zwingli began the Swiss Reformation. • 1525- Felix Manz claimed baptism of infants was wrong, resulting in the radical group, Anabaptists, being formed. • Jan 21st- Sixteen adults were baptized. • 1528- Anabaptists split into multiple groups, including the Hutterites. • 1536- Menno Simmons converted, later creating the group Mennonites • Late 16th century- Hutterite colonies spread through parts of Europe. • 1574- The Netherlands gave the Mennonites political freedom. • Early 17th century- Hutterites began being more accepted by other religious groups. • 1622- Hutterites were expelled from Moravia, and went to Hungary and Russia.
History of Anabaptist/ Separatist (cont’d) • 1693-1697- JakobAmann split from the Mennonites to form the Amish Church • 1767- Austria began persecuting Hutterites. • 18th Century persecution of Mennonites resulted in Mennonites migrating. • 1860- Mennonite group in Russia went through a religious awakening, calling for stricter measures in the church • 1881- The Brethren split, forming the Old Order German Brethren. • During WWII and after- many communities formed by Mennonites in Russia were destroyed. • 1950- Hutterites joined three separate groups to make the Hutterite United Brethren Church. • 1992- A section of the Hutterites split into Committee Hutterites and Schmiedeleut.
Major Splits • Evangelicals • Church of the Brethren • Moravian • Seventh Day Adventist • Quakers, Mennonites • Amish, Hutterites
Bibliography • "1888- Modern Times." The Society of Archbishop Justus Computer Service. Society of Archbishop Justus, 10 Sept. 2000. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://justus.anglican.org/resources/timeline/16moderntimes.html>. • "The 95 Theses of Martin Luther." The Highway: A Repository of Historic Christianity and the Reformed Faith. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.the-highway.com/95THESES.html>. • "Anabaptist." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Mar. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anabaptist>. • "Available Emblems of Belief for Placement on Government Headstones and Markers - Burial and Memorial Benefits." Burial and Memorial Benefits Home. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.cem.va.gov/hm/hmemb.asp>. • "Bones in the Rafters." Laboring In The Lord -. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://laboringinthelord.com/2011/06/24/bones-in-the-rafters-2/>. • Emberson, Ian. "Introduction to Protestantism: Denominations." Protestantism: The Various Aspects of the Protestant Faith. 1 Jan. 2012. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://protestant.christianityinview.com/denominations.html>. • Hillerbrand, Hans J. "Lutheranism." History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/lutheranism>. • "History of Anglicanism." History of the Church of England and Anglicanism. ReligionFacts. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/denominations/anglican_history.htm>. • "History of Anglicanism." History of the Church of England and Anglicanism. ReligionFacts. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.religionfacts.com/christianity/denominations/anglican_history.htm>. • "Internet Modern History Sourcebook: The Early Modern West." FORDHAM.EDU. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook1.html>. • Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print. • "Mennonite." History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/mennonite>. • ""Parish": A Definition." The Victorian Web: An Overview. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/parish.html>. • Shulman, Laura E. "Christianity." Object Moved. Oct. 2002. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.nvcc.edu/home/lshulman/rel232/lectures/christianity/denominations.htm>. • "Sifting the Cinders of the Cathars." 31 May 2009. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.tamrin.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=religions&action=print&thread=1395>. • Stillwell, John C. "Reformed and Presbyterian Churches." History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.history.com/topics/reformed-and-presbyterian-churches>. • "Timeline." Index. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://hutteritewomen.homestead.com/Timeline.html>. • Yelinek, Prue. ""Who Are the Brethren?"" Who Are the Brethren. 6 Aug. 2008. Web. 18 Mar. 2012. <http://www.cobwaypa.org/who_are_the_brethren.htm>.
Picture links(in order of appearance)(Also included in bibliography) • http://www.the-highway.com/95THESES.html • http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook1.html • http://www.tamrin.proboards.com/index.cgi?board=religions&action=print&thread=1395 • http://www.cem.va.gov/hm/hmemb.asp • http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/parish.html • http://laboringinthelord.com/2011/06/24/bones-in-the-rafters-2/