What and when? • Herbicidesin the Spring • 27 samples in May • Pathogensin the Summer • 128 Synoptic samples in July • 64 Follow-Up samples in Late July/Early August • Chemicals & Nutrientsin the Fall • 123 samples in September • NO Metalsin the Fall
Where? • 176 sites throughout Kentucky River Basin • Mainly in Central Basin and North Fork Region • Poor site coverage in South and Middle Forks of Kentucky River, as well as Lower Kentucky Region
Field Chemistry • Dissolved Oxygen • Aquatic Life Standard = 5 mg/L • 1% of stations had readings < 5 mg/L • pH • Aquatic Life Standard = 6 to 9 • 2 readings < 6 • K596-Eagle Creek, Owen Co. • K628-West Fork Silver Creek, Madison Co. • Temperature • None greater than Aquatic Life Std. of 31.7C
HERBICIDES Why monitored? • Potentially harmful to aquatic life and humans through drinking water Where are they coming from? • Runoff from agricultural and residential application How can we minimize their presence in our waterways? • Apply only as absolutely necessary, follow application instructions. • Maintain vegetation around and along waterbodies • Use recommended agricultural erosion control practices. • Properly dispose of herbicide containers (collection programs) • Do not dump leftover herbicide on ground, down sink, or down stormwater drains.
2009 Herbicide Parameters Sampled for 2 Herbicides in Spring 2009 • most likely time of year for herbicide application Triazines - highly persistent in soil - EPA Drinking Water Standard=3.0 micrograms/L - EPA Acute Aquatic Life = 350 micrograms/L • EPA Chronic Aquatic Life = 12 micrograms/L 2,4-D • Common herbicide to control broadleaf weeds • EPA drinking water standard (MCL) of 70 ppb
Herbicide Results Atrazine • 6 detections • none exceeded water quality standards 2,4-D • No detections
% Atrazine Detections (1999-2008) * Only once water quality standard exceedance at K501 (Eagle Creek in Owen County) in 2006 for Drinking Water Supply criteria.*
E. COLI Why monitored? • Can indicate presence of other pathogens that may cause illness or infections in people. Where are they coming from? • Failing septic systems, straightpipes, leaking sewage lines • Inadequately treated discharge from municipal sewage plants • Livestock (runoff from pasture or direct access to waterbody) How can we minimize their presence in our waterways? • Properly maintain septic systems. • Increase access to sewer systems. • Install fencing to keep livestock out of waterways. • Maintain vegetated buffers around waterbodies.
Pathogen Parameters E. Coli • Swimming Standard of 240 cfu/100 ml (instantaneous) • Swimming Standard of 130 cfu/100ml (geometric mean of at least 5 samples in 30 days) • Standards apply during Recreation Season from May 1 to October 31
Synoptic Pathogen Results (E. coli)59% > Swimming Standard23 sites exceeded maximum detection limit(2,420 cfu/100 ml in central KY, 4,840 in eastern KY) K626 – Potters ForkK50 – Benson CreekK52 – Benson CreekK94 – Lower Red RiverK95 – Red RiverK132 – West HickmanK184 – Wolf RunK191 – Otter CreekK305 – Town BranchK309 – McKecknie CreekK316 – North ElkhornK418 – West Hickman K462 – Cardinal RunK464 – Wolf RunK466 – Wolf RunK467 – Springs BranchK468 – Wolf RunK469 – Beacon Hill Clvt.K471 – Vaughn’s BranchK508 – Calloway CreekK517 – Springs BranchK595 – West HickmanK627 – Hayes Fork
Synoptic Pathogen Sampling Sites > 5,000 cfu/100 ml 2006 Synoptic Pathogen Sampling Results > 5,000 cfu/100 ml
Pathogen Trends1999-2003 vs. 2004-2008 • Conducted statistical comparison of the two 5-year periods • Many sites with inadequate data • 3 sites withvery significant improvement: • K174 (South Elkhorn, Woodford Co.) • K198 (Ky River Pool 6, Woodford Co.) • K303 (Hickman Creek, Jessamine Co.) • 2 sites with very significant worsening: • K085 (Glenn’s Creek, Woodford Co.) • K096 (Greenwood Spring, Woodford Co.)
Pathogen Trends1999-2003 vs. 2004-2008 Other sites with improvement: • K54 (McConnell Springs, Fayette Co.) • K105 (Blair Branch, Letcher Co.) • K156 (Fourmile Creek, Clark Co.) • K157 (Ky. River Boonesboro Beach, Clark Co.) • K199 (Ky. River, Mercer Co.) • K213 (Quicksand Creek, Breathitt Co.) • K245 (Muddy Creek, Madison Co.) • K249 (Muddy Creek, Madison Co.) • K301 (East Hickman Creek, Jessamine Co.)
Pathogen Trends1999-2003 vs. 2004-2008 Other sites with worsening conditions: • K05 (Cane Run, Scott Co.) • K55 (Town Branch, Fayette Co.) • K57 (Beals Branch Spring, Woodford Co.) • K247 (Viney Creek, Madison Co.)
NUTRIENTS Why monitored? • Lead to algal blooms, which consume oxygen as they decompose bad for aquatic life • Cause taste and odor problems in drinking water • Can cause “Blue baby” disease (or methemoglobinemia) Where are they coming from? • agricultural and residential fertilizer application • sewage and manure runoff How can we minimize their presence in our waterways? • Only apply fertilizers as necessary • Properly maintain septic systems • Use recommended erosion control measures • Keep livestock out of waterways, properly manage manure • Maintain vegetated buffers around waterbodies
Nutrient Parameters Nitrate (NO3-N) • Drinking Water Supply Std. = 10 mg/L • Aquatic Life Benchmark = 3.9 mg/L Total Phosphorus • KRWW Aquatic Life Std. = 0.5 mg/L Sulfate • Drinking Water Supply Std. = 250 mg/L
Phosphorus Results > 0.5 mg/L 2007 High Phosphate Sites 2006 High Phosphorus Sites
2006 High Sulfate Sites 2007 High Sulfate Sites
Chemical Analysis Chlorides • Chlorine + Metals = Chloride Salts • Drinking Water Supply Std = 250 mg/L • Chronic Aquatic Life Std = 600 mg/L • Acute Aquatic Life Std = 1,200 mg/L Highest ‘09 Chloride Reading of 692 mg/L at K640 – Clark’s Run, Boyle Co.
Chemical Analysis Conductivity • Related to level of total dissolved solids • Affects aquatic habitat and food supplies • Can serve as indicator of sewage input • Ohio River Std = 800 micromhos/cm Highest ’09 Readings at K098-Millstone Creek, Letcher Co., and K215, K216-Troublesome Creek, Breathitt Co.
2009 Sites of Concern OVERALL WATER QUALITY: K026—South Elkhorn Creek, Scott Co. (also listed in 2007 and 2008 for nutrients) Pathogens, phosphorus K085, K531—Glenn’s Creek, Woodford Co. Pathogens, nitrate, phosphorus K463—Cardinal Run, Fayette County Pathogens, phosphorus K627—Hayes Fork, Madison County Pathogens, dissolved oxygen
2009 Sites of Concern PATHOGENS: K050, K052—Benson Creek, Franklin Co. K094, K095—Red River, Estill & Powell Co. K132—West Hickman Creek, Fayette Co. K191—Otter Creek, Madison Co. (also listed in ‘07 and ‘08 for pathogens, nitrogen, phosphorus) K316—North Elkhorn Creek, Fayette Co. K418—Unnamed Trib of West Hickman Cr, Fayette Co. K462—Cardinal Run, Fayette Co. K466, K468—Wolf Run, Fayette Co. K508—Calloway Creek, Madison Co.
2009 Sites of Concern SULFATE/CONDUCTIVITY: K098—Millstone Creek, Letcher Co. K110, K111, K585, K586—Rockhouse Creek, Letcher Co. (K585 also listed in 2008 for pathogens, sulfate) K141—Carr Fork, Perry Co.
Applying Your Data • Annual Sampling Report - Provided to KRWW Volunteers, Kentucky River Authority, Kentucky Division of Water • Long Term Trend Reports • 5 Year Report • 10 Year Report • KRWW Web Site • www.krww.org
KRWW ONLINE DATABASEhttp://www.krww.org • Zoom in past 1:500,000 to see site ID labels Click on site or sites to see all historical data • Use “Area Tool” to zoom to single site or group of sites • Use “Measure Tool” to find distance between 2 points Use “Zoom to a Location” to zoom to a selected location (county, road intersections, stream extents, etc.)
Applying Your Data • Citizen Action Plans • Clark’s Run • Glenn’s Creek • Mallard Point Lake • Millers Creek • Muddy Creek • South Elkhorn Creek • West Hickman Creek • Presentations to Government Officials • KRA Watershed Grants (Up to $3000)
Kentucky River Authority Watershed Grant Program Grant offerings of up to $3,000 for watershed education, sampling, assessment, restoration projects Applicants must be nonprofit organization, school, or local government Applications will be accepted again in Fall 2010
Applying Your Data • Nonpoint Source (319) Projects • Eagle Creek Straightpipe Abatement Project (Grant County) • Cane Run Watershed Implementation Project • Dix River Watershed Plan (Clark’s Run and Hanging Fork) • Wolf Run Watershed-Based Plan and Partial Implementation • Red River Gorge Restoration and Watershed Plan
Questions & Discussion • Anyone present have a 2009 Site of Concern? Is there any local watershed activity addressing the concerns? • Other questions about sampling results and their meaning? • KDOW progress with updating Watershed Watch volunteer database?