What and when? • Herbicidesin the Spring • 18 samples in May • Pathogensin the Summer • 169 Synoptic samples in late June • 51 Follow-Up samples in Late July • Chemicals & Nutrientsin the Fall • 116 samples in September • Metalsin the Fall • 46 samples in September
Where? • 197 sites throughout Kentucky River Basin • Mainly in Central Basin and North Fork Region • Poor site coverage in South and Middle Forks of Kentucky River, as well as Lower Kentucky Region
HERBICIDES Why monitored? • Potentially harmful to aquatic life and humans through drinking water Where are they coming from? • Runoff from agricultural and residential application How can we minimize their presence in our waterways? • Apply only as absolutely necessary, follow application instructions. • Maintain vegetation around and along waterbodies • Use recommended agricultural erosion control practices. • Properly dispose of herbicide containers (collection programs) • Do not dump leftover herbicide on ground, down sink, or down stormwater drains.
2008 Herbicide Parameter Sampled for 1 Herbicide in Spring 2008 • most likely time of year for herbicide application Triazines • highly persistent in soil • EPA standard of 3.0 micrograms /L for drinking water • 350 micrograms/L for acute aquatic life criteria • 12 micrograms/L for chronic aquatic life criteria
Herbicide Results Triazines detected at 2 sites, but neither exceeded water quality standards K603 - Dry Run (0.21 ug/L) K605 – Elkhorn Creek (0.17 ug/L)
ElkhornCreek (K605) K603
E. COLI Why monitored? • Can indicate presence of other pathogens that may cause illness or infections in people. Where are they coming from? • Failing septic systems, straightpipes, leaking sewage lines • Inadequately treated discharge from municipal sewage plants • Livestock (runoff from pasture or direct access to waterbody) How can we minimize their presence in our waterways? • Properly maintain septic systems. • Increase access to sewer systems. • Install fencing to keep livestock out of waterways. • Maintain vegetated buffers around waterbodies.
Pathogen Parameters E. Coli • Swimming Standard of 240 cfu/100 ml (instantaneous) • Swimming Standard of 130 cfu/100ml (geometric mean of at least 5 samples in 30 days) • Standards apply during Recreation Season from May 1 to October 31
Synoptic Pathogen Sampling Sites > 5,000 cfu/100 ml 2006 Synoptic Pathogen Sampling Results > 5,000 cfu/100 ml
NUTRIENTS Why monitored? • Lead to algal blooms, which consume oxygen as they decompose bad for aquatic life • Cause taste and odor problems in drinking water • Can cause “Blue baby” disease (or methemoglobinemia) Where are they coming from? • agricultural and residential fertilizer application • sewage and manure runoff How can we minimize their presence in our waterways? • Only apply fertilizers as necessary • Properly maintain septic systems • Use recommended erosion control measures • Keep livestock out of waterways, properly manage manure • Maintain vegetated buffers around waterbodies
Nutrient Parameters Nitrate (NO3-N) • Drinking Water Supply Std. = 10 mg/L Total Phosphorus • Unofficial KRWW Aquatic Life Std. = 0.5 mg/L Sulfate • Drinking Water Supply Std. = 250 mg/L
Nitrogen Cycle Atmospheric Nitrogen N2 Ammonia NH3 Nitrites NO2 Fecal Matter Nitrates NO3 Urine/Urea Animal Protein Nitrogen Plant Protein Nitrogen
Phosphorus Cycle Inorganic Phosphate Ortho- Phosphate Dissolved organic phosphorus Higher Life Forms Cells of Zooplankton Cells of Phytoplankton Particulate organic phosphorus Sediment
2007 High Phosphate Sites 2006 High Phosphorus Sites
2006 High Sulfate Sites 2007 High Sulfate Sites
HEAVY METALS Why monitored? • High levels can be toxic to aquatic life or humans through drinking water • Can interfere with industrial water uses Where are they coming from? • Mining • Industrial discharges • Stormwater runoff from roads and parking lots How can we minimize their presence in our waterways? • Comply with discharge permit conditions • Use erosion control measures at mining sites and other construction sites • Use stormwater management practices - install retention ponds, vegetated filter strips around parking lots and along roads
Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Barium Beryllium Boron Cadmium Calcium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gold Iron Lead Lithium Magnesium Manganese Nickel Potassium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Thallium Tin Vanadium Zinc Metal Parameters (28) * Strikethrough = no detections
Detections * Barium * Copper * Iron * Nickel * Zinc No Detections * Antimony * Arsenic * Beryllium * Cadmium * Chromium * Lead * Selenium * Silver * Thallium Metal Parameters with Standards (14)
2008 Sites of Concern OVERALL WATER QUALITY: K082 – North Fork Ky. River, Perry Co.pathogens, sulfate, metals (iron/zinc) K216 – Lost Creek, Breathitt Co. pathogens, sulfate K585 – Rockhouse Creek, Letcher Co. pathogens, sulfate K606 – Unnamed Trib of Neals Creek, Lincoln Co. Pathogens, nutrients, metals (iron/zinc)
2008 Sites of Concern NUTRIENTS: K026 – South Elkhorn Creek, Scott Co.(also listed in 2007 for nutrients) K191 – Otter Creek, Madison Co.(also listed in 2007 for pathogens and nutrients)
2008 Sites of Concern PATHOGENS: K264 – Unnamed Tributary of Shallowford Creek, Madison Co. (also listed in 2007 for pathogens) K300 – Hickman Creek, Fayette Co. K517 – Spring Branch, Fayette Co.
2008 Sites of Concern METALS / SULFATE: K214 – South Fork of Quicksand Creek, Breathitt Co.
2006 KRWW Sites of Concern 2007 Sites of Concern
Applying Your Data • Annual Sampling Report • Kentucky River Authority • Kentucky Division of Water • Long Term Trend Reports • 5 Year Report • 10 Year Report • KRWW Web Site • www.krww.org
KRWW ONLINE DATABASEhttp://www.krww.org • Zoom in past 1:500,000 to see site ID labels Click on site or sites to see all historical data • Use “Area Tool” to zoom to single site or group of sites • Use “Measure Tool” to find distance between 2 points Use “Zoom to a Location” to zoom to a selected location (county, road intersections, stream extents, etc.)